Time Travel Research Center © 2005 Cetin
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Gravity and Antigravity
Feb 2001, Feb 2005
1. Gravity and mass (02/06)
2. Shielding, electrogravity, antigravity
3. Explaining gravity
It is said to have been the sight of an apple falling from a tree that,
around 1665, gave Isaac Newton the idea that the force that pulls an apple
to earth is the same as that which keeps the moon in its orbit around the
earth. The reason the moon does not fall to earth is because of the
counteracting effect of its orbital motion. If the moon were to cease its
orbital motion and fall to earth, the acceleration due to gravity that it
would experience at the earth’s surface would be 9.8 m/s² – the same as
that experienced by an apple or any other object in free fall.
Newton’s universal law of gravitation states that the gravitational
force between two bodies is proportional to the product of their masses
and inversely proportional to the square of the distance between them. To
calculate the gravitational force (F), their masses (m1
and m2) and the gravitational constant (G) are
multiplied together, and the result is divided by the square of the
distance (r) between them: F = Gm1m2/r².
According to newtonian theory, the gravitational force between two
or more bodies is therefore dependent on their masses. However, the
gravitational acceleration of an attracted body is not dependent on
its mass: if dropped simultaneously from a tower, and if air resistance is
ignored, a tennis ball and a cannonball will hit the ground simultaneously.
This is explained by means of Newton’s second law of motion, which states
that the force applied to a body equals the mass of the body multiplied by
its acceleration (F = ma); this implies that gravity pulls harder on
If Newton’s two force equations are combined (F = ma = Gm1m2/r²),
it can be deduced that, for the equation to balance, the gravitational
constant (G) must have the rather curious dimensions m³/kg.s² (volume
divided by mass multiplied by time squared).
In her book Gravitational Force of the Sun,1
Pari Spolter criticizes the orthodox theory that gravity is proportional
to the quantity or density of inert mass. She goes as far as to argue that
there is no reason to include any term for mass in either of the force
equations. She points out that to deduce from the earth-moon system that
gravity obeys an inverse-square law (i.e. that its strength diminishes by
the square of the distance from the attracting body), Newton did not need
to know or estimate the masses of the earth and moon. He needed to know
only the acceleration due to gravity at the earth’s surface, the radius of
the earth, the orbital speed of the moon, and the distance between the
earth and moon. And as already said, a body’s gravitational acceleration
in free fall is independent of its mass, something that has been verified
to a high degree of precision.2
Spolter rejects Newton’s second law (F = ma) as an arbitrary
definition or convention, and maintains that it is not force that
is equal to mass times acceleration, but weight. Her equation for
‘linear’ force is F = ad (acceleration times distance). Her equation for
‘circular’ force (including gravity) is F = aA, where a is the
acceleration and A is the area of a circle with a radius equal to
the mean distance of the orbiting body from the central body. She holds
that the acceleration due to gravity declines by the square of the
distance, but that the gravitational force of the sun, earth, etc. is
constant for any body revolving around it. In newtonian theory, by
contrast, it varies according to both the mass of the orbiting body and
its distance from the central body.
Spolter’s theory contains several flaws. First, her attempt to deny
any link between force and mass is unconvincing. She does not question the
equation for a body’s momentum (momentum = mass times velocity), yet
momentum with a rate of repetition constitutes a force, which therefore
cannot be independent of mass. Moreover, weight is a type of force, rather
than a completely separate phenomenon. Second, Spolter would have us
believe that there are two types of force and energy – one linear and one
circular – with different dimensions: she gives ‘linear’ force the
dimensions metres squared per second squared, while ‘circular’ force is
given the dimensions metres cubed per second squared. But there is no
justification for inventing two forms of force and energy and for
abandoning uniform dimensions in this way.
Third, defining ‘circular’ force in such a way that the
gravitational force of a star or planet remains exactly the same no matter
how far away from it we happen to be, is counterintuitive if not absurd.
Furthermore, it is disingenuous of Spolter to say that her equation
implies that acceleration is inversely proportional to the square of the
distance. If it were true that a = F/A, with force (F) proportional to r3
(see below) and area (A = πr2)
proportional to r2, acceleration would in fact
be directly proportional to r3/r2
Spolter believes that her gravity equation solves the mystery of
Kepler’s third law of planetary motion: this law states that the ratio of
the cube of the mean distance (r) of each planet from the sun to the
square of its period of revolution (T) is always the same number (r³/T² =
constant). Her gravity equation can be rewritten: F = 22π3r3/T2.
As explained elsewhere, the factor 22π3
is entirely arbitrary, and Spolter has merely obscured the real
significance of Kepler’s constant.3
Gravity does not involve some (mean) area being accelerated around
the sun, as Spolter’s equation implies. Rather, it involves a coupling of
the mass-energy of the sun and planets, along with their associated
massfree gravitational energy. And it acts not through empty space but
through an energetic ether – something that is as much missing from
Spolter’s physics as from orthodox physics (see section 3). As shown in
subsequent sections, the net gravitational force need not be directly
proportional to inert mass, as characteristics such as spin and charge can
modify a body’s gravitational properties.
Spolter proposes that it is the rotation of a star, planet, etc.
that somehow generates the gravitational force and causes other bodies to
revolve around it – an idea advanced by the 17th-century astronomer
Johannes Kepler.4 But she does not suggest a
mechanism to explain how this might work, or what causes a celestial body
to rotate in the first place. She shows that the mean distance of
successive planetary orbits from the centre of the sun, or of successive
lunar orbits from the centre of a planet, is not random but follows an
exponential law, indicating that gravity is quantized on a macro scale,
just as electron orbits in an atom are quantized on a micro scale. There
is no generally accepted theory to explain this key fact either.
The Devil’s Dictionary defines gravitation as: ‘The tendency
of all bodies to approach one another with a strength proportioned to the
quantity of matter they contain – the quantity of matter they contain
being ascertained by the strength of their tendency to approach one
another’.5 Such is the seemingly circular logic
underlying standard gravity theory. The figures given for the masses and
densities of all planets, stars, etc. are purely theoretical; nobody has
ever placed one on a balance and weighed it! It should be borne in mind,
however, that weight is always a relative measure, since one mass can only
be weighed in relation to some other mass. The fact that observed
artificial satellite speeds match predictions is usually taken as evidence
that the fundamentals of newtonian theory must be correct.
The masses of celestial bodies can be calculated from what is known
as Newton’s form of Kepler’s third law, which assumes that Kepler’s
constant ratio of r³/T² is equal to the inert mass of the body multiplied
by the gravitational constant divided by 4π² (GM = 4π²r³/T² = v²r [if we
substitute 2πr/v for T]). Using this method, the earth’s mean density
turns out to be 5.5 g/cm³. Since the mean density of the earth’s outer
crust is 2.75 g/cm³, scientists have concluded that the density of the
earth’s inner layers must increase substantially with depth. However,
there are good reasons for questioning the standard earth model.6
CODATA’s official (1998) value for the gravitational constant (G)
is 6.673 +/- 0.010 x 10-11 m3
kg-1 s-2. While the
values of many ‘fundamental constants’ are known to eight decimal places,
experimental values for G often disagree after only three, and sometimes
they even disagree about the first; this is regarded as an embarrassment
in an age of precision.1
Assuming the correctness of Newton’s gravitational equation, G can
be determined in Cavendish-type experiments, by measuring the very small
angle of deflection of a torsion balance from which large and small
metallic spheres are suspended, or the very small change in its period of
oscillation. Such experiments are extremely sensitive and difficult to
perform. For instance, electrostatic attraction between the metallic
spheres can affect the results: in one experiment in which the small mass
of platinum was coated with a thin layer of lacquer, consistently lower
values of G were obtained.2 Note that variations
in the experimental values of G do not necessarily mean that G itself
varies; they probably mean that the local manifestation of G, or the
earth’s surface gravity (g), varies according to ambient conditions.
Scientists have occasionally speculated on whether G is truly constant
over very long periods of time, but no conclusive evidence of a gradual
increase or decrease has been found.3
In 1981 a paper was published showing that measurements of G in
deep mines, boreholes, and under the sea gave values about 1% higher than
that currently accepted.4 Furthermore, the
deeper the experiment, the greater the discrepancy. However, no one took
much notice of these results until 1986, when E. Fischbach and his
colleagues reanalyzed the data from a series of experiments by Eötvös in
the 1920s, which were supposed to have shown that gravitational
acceleration is independent of the mass or composition of the attracted
body. Fischbach et al. found that there was a consistent anomaly hidden in
the data that had been dismissed as random error. On the basis of these
laboratory results and the observations from mines, they announced that
they had found evidence of a short-range, composition-dependent ‘fifth
force’. Their paper caused a great deal of controversy and generated a
flurry of experimental activity in physics laboratories around the world.5
The majority of the experiments failed to find any evidence of a
composition-dependent force; one or two did, but this is generally
attributed to experimental error. Several earlier experimenters have
detected anomalies incompatible with newtonian theory, but the results
have long since been forgotten. For instance, Charles Brush performed very
precise experiments showing that metals of very high atomic weight and
density tend to fall very slightly faster than elements of lower atomic
weight and density, even though the same mass of each metal is used. He
also reported that a constant mass or quantity of certain metals may be
appreciably changed in weight by changing its physical condition.6
His work was not taken seriously by the scientific community, and the very
precise spark photography technique he used in his free-fall experiments
has never been used by other investigators. Experiments by Victor Crémieu
showed that gravitation measured in water at the earth’s surface appears
to be one tenth greater than that computed by newtonian theory.7
Unexpected anomalies continue to turn up. Mikhail Gersteyn has
shown that ‘G’ varies by at least 0.054% depending on orientation of the
two test masses relative to the fixed stars.8
Gary Vezzoli has found that the strength of gravitational interactions
varies by 0.04 to 0.05% as a function of an object’s temperature, shape,
and phase.9 Donald Kelly has demonstrated that
if the absorption capacity of a body is reduced by magnetizing or
electrically energizing it, it is attracted to the earth at a rate less
than g.10 Physicists normally measure g in a
controlled manner which includes not altering the absorption capacity of
bodies from their usual state. A team of Japanese scientists has found
that a right-spinning gyroscope falls slightly faster than when it is not
spinning.11 Bruce DePalma discovered that
rotating objects falling in a magnetic field accelerate faster than g.12
As mentioned above, measurements of gravity below the earth’s
surface are consistently higher than predicted on the basis of Newton’s
theory.13 Sceptics simply assume that hidden
rocks of unusually high density must be present. However, measurements in
mines where densities are very well known have given the same anomalous
results, as have measurements to a depth of 1673 metres in a homogenous
ice sheet in Greenland, well above the underlying rock. Harold Aspden
points out that in some of these experiments Faraday cage-type enclosures
are placed around the two metal spheres for electrical screening purposes.
He argues that this could result in electric charge being induced and held
on the spheres, which in turn could induce ‘vacuum’ (or rather ether) spin,
producing an influx of ether energy that is shed as excess heat, resulting
in errors of 1 or 2% in measurements of G.14
All freely falling bodies – individual atoms as well as macroscopic
objects – experience a gravitational acceleration (g) of about 9.8 m/s²
near the earth’s surface. The value of g varies slightly all over the
earth owing to its departure from a perfect sphere (i.e. the equatorial
bulge and local topography) and – in the conventional theory – to local
variations in the density of the crust and upper mantle. These ‘gravity
anomalies’ are believed to be fully explicable in the context of newtonian
theory. However, the net gravitational force is not necessarily
proportional to inert mass. Section 2 will present evidence for gravity
shielding, gravity cancellation, and antigravity.
On the basis of newtonian gravity, it might be expected that
gravitational attraction over continents, and especially mountains, would
be higher than over oceans. In reality, the gravity on top of large
mountains is less than expected on the basis of their visible mass while
over ocean surfaces it is unexpectedly high. To explain this, the concept
of isostasy was developed: it was postulated that low-density rock exists
30 to 100 km beneath mountains, which buoys them up, while denser rock
exists 30 to 100 km beneath the ocean bottom. However, this hypothesis is
far from proven. Physicist Maurice Allais commented: ‘There is an excess
of gravity over the ocean and a deficiency above the continents. The
theory of isostasis provided only a pseudoexplanation of this.’15
The standard, simplistic theory of isostasy is contradicted by the
fact that in regions of tectonic activity vertical movements often
intensify gravity anomalies rather than acting to restore isostatic
equilibrium. For example, the Greater Caucasus shows a positive gravity
anomaly (usually interpreted to mean it is overloaded with excess mass),
yet it is rising rather than subsiding.
Newtonian gravity theory is challenged by various aspects of
planetary behaviour in our solar system. The rings of Saturn, for example,
present a major problem.16 There are tens of
thousands of rings and ringlets separated by just as many gaps in which
matter is either less dense or essentially absent. The complex, dynamic
nature of the rings seems beyond the power of newtonian mechanics to
explain. The gaps in the asteroid belt present a similar puzzle.
Another anomaly concerns the deviations in the orbits of the outer
planets (Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune). A ‘Planet X’ beyond Pluto
has been hypothesized; it would need to be two to five times more massive
than the earth, and 50 to 100 times further from the sun than the earth is
(Pluto is currently about 30 times further from the sun than the earth
is).17 The largest object beyond Pluto so far
discovered (July 2005) – known as Xena – is about 30% larger than Pluto (which
is only two-thirds the size of the moon). It has a highly elongated orbit,
and is currently over three times further from the sun than Pluto. Two
other minor planets, about 70% the size of Pluto, have been sighted at
about the same distance as Xena.18 Whether there
is enough mass beyond Pluto to explain all orbital deviations remains to
- Pari Spolter, Gravitational Force of the Sun, Granada Hills,
CA: Orb Publishing, 1993.
- Ibid., pp. 39-40, 141-147; ‘Equivalence principle passes atomic
and gravity: an introduction’, section 10, davidpratt.info.
- Johannes Kepler, Epitome of Copernican Astronomy (1618-21),
in Great Books of the Western World, Chicago: Encyclopaedia
Britannica, Inc., 1952, v. 16, pp. 895-905.
- Quoted in Meta Research Bulletin, 5:3, 1996, p. 41.
- See ‘Mysteries
of the inner earth’, davidpratt.info.
- D. Kestenbaum, ‘The legend of G’, New Scientist, 17 Jan 1998,
pp. 39-42; Vincent Kiernan, ‘Gravitational constant is up in the air’,
New Scientist, 26 Apr 1995, p. 18.
- Spolter, Gravitational Force of the Sun, p. 117; Pari Spolter,
‘Problems with the gravitational constant’, Infinite Energy,
10:59, 2005, p. 39.
- Rupert Sheldrake, Seven Experiments that Could Change the World,
London: Fourth Estate, 1994, pp. 176-178.
- F.D. Stacey and G.J. Tuck, ‘Geophysical evidence for non-newtonian
gravity’, Nature, v. 292, 1981, pp. 230-232.
- Seven Experiments that Could Change the World, pp. 174-176;
Gravitational Force of the Sun, pp. 146-147.
- Charles F. Brush, ‘Some new experiments in gravitation’,
Proceedings of the American Philosophy Society, v. 63, 1924, pp.
- Victor Crémieu, ‘Recherches sur la gravitation’, Comptes Rendus
de l’académie des Sciences, Dec 1906, pp. 887-889; Victor Crémieu,
‘Le problème de la gravitation’, Rev. Gen. Sc. Pur. et Appl., v.
18, 1907, pp. 7-13.
- Mikhail L. Gershteyn, Lev I. Gershteyn, Arkady Gershteyn, and Oleg
V. Karagioz, ‘Experimental evidence that the gravitational constant
varies with orientation’, Infinite Energy, 10:55, 2004, pp.
- G.C. Vezzoli, ‘Materials properties of water related to electrical
and gravitational interactions’, Infinite Energy, 8:44, 2002,
- Stephen Mooney, ‘From the cause of gravity to the revolution of
science’, Apeiron, 6:1-2, 1999, pp. 138-141; Josef Hasslberger,
‘Comments on gravity drop tests performed by Donald A. Kelly’, Nexus,
Dec 1994-Jan 1995, pp. 48-49.
- H. Hayasaka et al., ‘Possibility for the existence of anti-gravity:
evidence from a free-fall experiment using a spinning gyro’,
Speculations in Science and Technology, v. 20, 1997, pp. 173-181;
- The Home of Primordial Energy (Bruce DePalma), www.depalma.pair.com;
Jeane Manning, The Coming Energy Revolution: The search for free
energy, NY: Avery, 1996, pp. 82-86.
- S.C. Holding and G.J. Tuck, ‘A new mine determination of the
newtonian gravitational constant’, Nature, v. 307, 1984, pp.
714-716; Mark A. Zumberge et al., ‘Results from the 1987 Greenland G
experiment’, Eos, v. 69, 1988, p. 1046; R. Poole, ‘ “Fifth force”
update: more tests needed’, Science, v. 242, 1988, p. 1499; Ian
Anderson, ‘Icy tests provide firmer evidence for a fifth force’, New
Scientist, 11 Aug 1988, p. 29.
- Harold Aspden, ‘Gravity and its thermal anomaly’, Infinite
Energy, 7:41, 2002, pp. 61-65.
- M.F.C. Allais, ‘Should the laws of gravitation be reconsidered?’,
part 2, Aero/Space Engineering, v. 18, Oct 1959, p. 52.
- W.R. Corliss (comp.), The Moon and the Planets, Glen Arm, MD:
Sourcebook Project, 1985, pp. 282-284.
- Tom Van Flandern, Dark Matter, Missing Planets & New Comets,
Berkeley, CA: North Atlantic Books, 1993, pp. 315-325.
- Jeff Hecht, ‘Our solar system just got bigger’, New Scientist,
6 Aug 2005, pp. 10-11; ‘The tenth planet’, New Scientist, 4 Feb
2006, p. 20.
Both gravity and electromagnetism obey the inverse-square law, i.e.
their strength declines by the square of the distance between interacting
systems. In other respects, however, they seem to be very different. For
instance, the gravitational force between two electrons is 42 orders of
magnitude (1042) weaker than their electrical
repulsion. The reason electromagnetic forces do not completely overwhelm
gravity in the world around us is that most things are composed of an
equal amount of positive and negative electric charges whose forces cancel
each other out. Whereas electric and magnetic forces are clearly bipolar,
gravity is generally assumed to be always attractive so that no analogous
Another difference is that the presence of matter can modify or
shield electric and magnetic forces and electromagnetic radiation, whereas
no weakening of gravity has allegedly been measured by placing matter
between two bodies, and it is assumed that this is true whatever the
thickness of the matter in question. However, some experiments have
found evidence that can be interpreted in terms of either gravitational
shielding or of deviations from the inverse-square law.
In the course of a long series of very sensitive experiments in the
1920s, Quirino Majorana found that placing mercury or lead beneath a
suspended lead sphere acted as a screen and slightly decreased the earth’s
gravitational pull. No attempts have been made to reproduce his results
using the same experimental techiques. Other researchers have concluded
from other data that if gravitational absorption does exist it must be at
least five orders of magnitude smaller than Majorana’s experiments suggest.1
Tom Van Flandern has argued that anomalies in the motions of certain
artificial earth satellites during eclipse seasons may be caused by
shielding of the sun’s gravity.2
Several investigators have detected gravity anomalies incompatible
with both newtonian and einsteinian models of gravity during solar
eclipses, but others have detected no such anomalies. During solar
eclipses in 1954 and 1959, physicist Maurice Allais (who won the Nobel
Prize in Economics in 1988) detected disturbances in the swing direction
of a paraconical pendulum (i.e. one suspended on a ball).3
Erwin Saxl and Mildred Allen confirmed the ‘Allais effect’ when they
measured significant variations in the period of a torsion pendulum during
a solar eclipse in 1970. One interpretation is that such anomalies are due
to the sun’s gravity being shielded by the moon, resulting in a slight
increase in terrestrial gravity. Allais and Saxl also detected unexpected
daily and seasonal pendulum variations.4
A similar gravity anomaly was measured using a two-pendula system
during the line-up of Earth-Sun-Jupiter-Saturn in May 2001.5
During the total solar eclipse in 1997, a Chinese team performed
measurements with a high-precision gravimeter. However, in contrast to the
Allais effect, they detected a decrease in the earth’s gravity.
Moreover, the effect occurred immediately before and after the eclipse but
not at its height.6 In the course of
observations conducted since 1987, Shu-wen Zhou and his collaborators have
confirmed the occurrence of an anomalous force of horizontal oscillation
when the sun, moon, and earth are aligned, and have shown that it affects
the pattern of grain sequence in crystals, the spectral wavelengths of
atoms and molecules, and the rate of atomic clocks.7
Various conventional explanations have been put forward to explain
gravity anomalies during eclipses, such as instrument errors, gravity
effects of denser air due to cooling of the upper atmosphere, seismic
disturbances caused by sightseers moving into and out of a place where an
eclipse is visible, and tilting of the ground due to cooling. In a recent
review (2004), physicist Chris Duif has argued that none of them are
convincing. He believes that gravitational shielding, too, cannot explain
the results, as it would be far too weak (if it exists at all).
Independent researcher Thomas Goodey is planning a series of rigorous
eclipse experiments over the next few years in the hope of shedding more
light on the matter.8
Possible evidence of gravity shielding is provided by experiments
reported by Evgeny Podkletnov and his coworkers in 1992 and 1995. When a
ceramic superconductor was magnetically levitated and rotated at high
speed in the presence of an external magnetic field, objects placed above
the rotating disc changed weight.* Weight reductions of 0.3 to 0.5% were
obtained, and when the rotation speed was slowly reduced from 5000
revolutions per minute to 3500, a maximum weight loss of about 2% was
achieved for about 30 seconds.9 5% weight
reductions have been recorded, though not with the same repeatability.
*The weight of a body is equal to its mass multiplied
by gravitational acceleration (W = mg). Strictly speaking, an object
with a mass of 1 kg weighs 9.8 newtons on earth. However, weights are
commonly given in kilograms, with the gravitational acceleration of 9.8
m/s² at the earth’s surface being taken for granted. If the force of
gravity acting on a body is reduced, its weight is likewise reduced,
while its mass (in the sense of ‘quantity of matter’) remains the same.
Note that a body’s apparent weight will change if it is
accelerated by nongravitational forces that either oppose or reinforce
the action of the local gravitational field; for instance, an
electrodynamic force can be used to cancel gravity.
Other investigators have found the Podkletnov experiment extremely
difficult to duplicate in its entirety (Podkletnov has not revealed the
exact recipe for making his superconductors), but stripped-down versions
have produced small effects (on the order of one part in 104).10
From 1995 to 2002 NASA Marshall Space Flight Center attempted a full
experimental replication of the Podkletnov configuration, but ran out of
resources. A privately funded replication was completed in 2003, but found
no evidence of a gravity-like force. NASA has concluded that this approach
is not a viable candidate for breakthrough propulsion.11
Gravity and electromagnetism
Various experimental results seem to point to a link between
electromagnetism and gravity. For instance, Erwin Saxl found that when a
torsion pendulum was positively charged, it took longer to swing through
its arc than when it was negatively charged. Maurice Allais conducted
experiments in 1953 to investigate the action of a magnetic field on the
motion of a glass pendulum oscillating inside a solenoid, and concluded
that there was a connection between electromagnetism and gravity.1
Bruce DePalma conducted numerous experiments showing that rotation and
rotating magnetic fields can have anomalous gravitational and inertial
effects.2 Podkletnov’s experiments seem to
A controversial electrogravitics researcher is John Searl, an
English electronics technician.2 In 1949 he
discovered that a small voltage (or electromotive force) was induced in
spinning metal objects. The negative charge was on the outside and the
positive charge was around the centre of rotation. He reasoned that free
electrons were thrown out by centrifugal force, leaving a positive charge
in the centre.
In 1952 he constructed a generator, some three feet in diameter,
based on this principle. When tested outdoors, it reportedly produced a
powerful electrostatic effect on nearby objects, accompanied by crackling
sounds and the smell of ozone. The generator then lifted off the ground,
while still accelerating, and rose to a height of about 50 feet, breaking
the connection with the engine. It briefly hovered at this height, still
speeding up. A pink halo appeared around it, indicating ionization of the
surrounding atmosphere. It also caused local radio receivers to go on of
their own accord. Finally, it reached another critical rotational velocity,
rapidly gained altitude, and disappeared from sight.
Fig. 2.1 A Searl disc.
Searl has said that he and his colleagues subsequently built over
50 versions of his ‘levity disc’, of various sizes, and learned how to
control them. He claims to have been persecuted by the authorities,
resulting in wrongful imprisonment and the destruction of most of his work,
so that he has had to start all over again. His claim that in the early
1970s one of his craft flew round the world several times without being
detected does nothing to enhance his credibility.
Although Searl has been dismissed as a con man, there are
indications that the ‘Searl effect’ may involve a genuine anomaly.
Two Russian scientists, V.V. Roschin and S.M. Godin, carried out an
experiment with a Searl-type generator, and observed a 35% weight
reduction, luminescence, a smell of ozone, anomalous magnetic-field
effects, and a fall in temperature. They concluded that orthodox,
etherless physics cannot explain these results.4
However, separating genuine gravity anomalies from electrodyamic artifacts
in such experiments is no easy task.
In the 1980s electrical engineer Floyd Sweet developed a device
consisting of a set of specially conditioned magnets, wound with wires,
known as the vacuum triode amplifier (VTA), which is designed to induce
oscillation in magnetic fields. It was able to put out much more power
than it took in, by capturing energy from the ‘vacuum’ (i.e. ether energy).
In one experiment it lost 90% of its original weight before the experiment
was stopped for safety reasons. Sweet later succeeded in making the VTA
hover and accelerate upward, with the unit on a tether. He became very
paranoid after an alleged assassination attempt, and died without
revealing the full secrets of his invention.5
The ‘Hutchison effect’ refers to a collection of phenomena
discovered accidentally by inventor John Hutchison in 1979.
Electromagnetic influences developed by a combination of electric power
equipment, including Tesla coils, have produced levitation of heavy
objects (including a 60-pound canon ball), fusion of dissimilar materials
such as metal and wood, anomalous heating of metals without burning
adjacent material, spontaneous fracturing of metals, and changes in the
crystalline structure and physical properties of metals. The effects have
been well documented on film and videotape, and witnessed many times by
credentialed scientists and engineers, but are difficult to reproduce
A Pentagon team spent several months investigating the Hutchison
effect in 1983. Four of the investigators came away convinced it was real,
while the fifth simply dismissed whatever happened as ‘smoke and mirrors’.
Many phenomena were witnessed: a super-strong molybdenum rod was bent into
an S-shape as if it were soft metal; a length of high-carbon steel
shredded at one end and transmuted into lead the other; a piece of PVC
plastic disappeared into thin air; bits of wood became embedded in the
middle of pieces of aluminium; and all sorts of objects levitated. Two
aerospace companies (Boeing and McDonnell Douglas) have also investigated
the Hutchison effect. The problem is its randomness and unpredictability.
Indeed, some researchers think that it is at least partly attributable to
Hutchison’s own unconscious psychokinetic powers.7
The 2% weight loss Podkletnov says he has achieved with his
superconductor apparatus is about 10 billion times greater than allowed
for in general relativity theory. Off the record, Podkletnov has claimed
that if the superconductors are rotated 5 to 10 times faster than the
usual speed of about 5000 rpm, the disc experiences so much weight loss
that it takes off.8 Joe Parr and Dan Davidson
say they have measured weight losses of up to 50% in a ‘gravity wheel’ – a
small wheel with copper triangles around the circumference, which is spun
on a shaft by a high-speed motor, between permanent magnets mounted on
Ether scientists Paulo and Alexandra Correa have also demonstrated
that gravity can be controlled by electromagnetic means. In one experiment,
a 43-milligram piece of gold leaf, suspended from the arm of a wooden beam
connected to a sensitive electronic balance (far off to the side), was
quickly reduced in weight by 70%. This was achieved by imposing an
electrical frequency adjusted to match that of the gold antigraviton (as
it is called in the Correas’ aetherometry model). This technique is able
to produce 100% weight reduction in objects of known composition in the
There are an estimated 2000 to 3000 experimenters worldwide
conducting unorthodox research into technologies beyond the currently
accepted scientific paradigms, including gravity control and ‘free energy’
devices.11 The Correas stand out for their
rigorous experimental approach. They say that they have observed weight
losses with their PAGD (Pulsed Abnormal Glow Discharge) reactors, but the
fact that the observations were difficult to reproduce led them to believe
that they had not properly protected the experiments from electrodynamic
artifacts seated in the input wires or in the arrangement of liquid
conductors. Not all alternative researchers are as cautious and self-critical
as this, and the standard of research is uneven.
The field of electrogravitics was pioneered by physicist and
inventor Thomas Townsend Brown (1905-1985), beginning in the mid-1920s. He
discovered that if an electrical capacitor* using a heavy, high charge-accumulating
dielectric material between its plates was charged with 75,000 to 300,000
volts, it would move in the direction of its positive pole – this later
became known as the Biefeld-Brown effect. He found that the thrust rose
exponentially with increasing voltage, and that the greater the mass of
the dielectric material between the plates, the greater the effect. He
attributed this force to an electrostatically-induced artificial gravity
field acting between the capacitor’s plates. He obtained several patents
for his devices, and some of his findings have been reproduced by other
*Capacitors are devices that store electric charge in
the space between two separated, oppositely charged electrodes. Their
capacity to store electric energy can be greatly increased by inserting
a solid dielectric material into the space separating the electrodes.
Dielectrics are materials that are poor conductors of electricity (e.g.
Brown’s work aroused the interest of the US military. In 1952 an
Air Force major general witnessed a demonstration in which Brown flew a
pair of 18-inch disc airfoils suspended from opposite ends of a rotatable
arm. When electrified with 50,000 volts, they circuited at a speed of 12
miles per hour. Later that year, however, an investigator from the Office
of Naval Research wrote a report which concluded that the discs were
propelled by the pressure of negative ions striking the positive electrode
(ion wind), rather than by modifying gravity.
Fig. 2.1 Brown’s electrokinetic flying
Patent no. 2,949,550, 16 August 1960.
Paul LaViolette believes that Brown’s discovery supports his theory
that negative charges such as electrons generate an antigravity field (see
section 3). He writes:
Brown’s discs were charged with a high positive voltage on a wire
running along their leading edge and a high negative voltage on a wire
running along their trailing edge. As the wires ionized the air around
them, a dense cloud of positive ions would form ahead of the craft and a
corresponding cloud of negative ions would form behind the craft.
Brown’s research indicated that, like the charged plates of his
capacitors, these ion clouds induced a gravitational force directed in
the minus to plus direction. As the disc moved forward in response to
its self-generated gravity field, it would carry with it its positive
and negative ion clouds with their associated electrogravity gradient.
Consequently, the discs would ride their advancing gravity wave much
like surfers ride an ocean wave.2
Fig. 2.2 A side view of one of Brown’s circular flying discs
showing the location of its ion charges and induced gravity field –
according to LaViolette.
In late 1954 Brown flew a set of 3-foot-diameter saucers for
military officials and representatives from a number of major aircraft
companies. When energized with 150,000 volts, the discs sped around the 50
foot diameter course so fast that the subject was immediately classified.
Interavia magazine later reported that the discs attained speeds of
several hundred miles per hour when charged with several hundred thousand
A declassified aviation industry intelligence report indicates that
by September 1954 the Pentagon had launched a secret government programme
to develop a manned antigravity craft of the type Brown had proposed two
years earlier.3 Brown, however, was not
officially involved in this project. In 1955 and later years he carried
out vacuum chamber tests which proved that his devices continued to
experience a thrust even in the absence of ionic wind. By 1958 he had
succeeded in developing a 15-inch-diameter dome-shaped saucer model which,
when energized with 50 to 250 thousand volts, lifted itself up and hovered
in mid-air, while supporting an additional mass equal to 10% of its weight.
Fig. 2.3 Brown’s setup for testing a device capable of
The nature of the Biefeld-Brown (B-B) effect continues to generate
controversy. According to the classical B-B effect, the largest force on
an asymmetric capacitor (i.e. one where the two electrodes are of
different sizes) is in a direction from the negative (larger) electrode
toward the positive (smaller) electrode. Thomas Bahder and Chris Fazi, at
the US Army Research Laboratory, have verified that when a high voltage of
about 30,000 volts is applied to an asymmetric capacitor (in the form of a
‘lifter’), the capacitor experiences a net force toward the smaller
electrode, but they found that the force is independent of the
polarity of the applied voltage.
They calculate that the ion wind contribution is at least three
orders of magnitude too small to explain the entire effect, and say that
more experimental and theoretical work is needed to find an explanation.
They do not believe that the B-B effect has anything to do with
antigravity or that it demonstrates an interaction between gravity and
electromagnetism.6 Bahder suspects that the
asymmetric electric fields created by an asymmetric capacitor lead to a
charge flow of ions around the capacitor, and the back-reaction force
‘propels’ it forward.
In 1996 a research group at the Honda R&D Institute in Japan
conducted experiments that verified the B-B effect. Here, too, an upward
thrust was created (so that the capacitor appeared to lose weight)
regardless of the polarity of the voltage applied. Takaaki Musha holds
that the effect may involve the generation of a new gravitational field
inside the atom by a high-potential electric field, due to an interaction
between electricity and gravitation whose mechanism is not yet understood.7
The B-B effect is said to be demonstrated by cheap, lightweight
devices known as ‘lifters’, made of aluminum foil, balsa wood, and thin
wire, and powered by a ground-based high-voltage power supply.8
Hundreds of independent researchers around the world are experimenting
with these devices. The lower and larger electrode is a strip of aluminium
foil stretched between balsa wood struts. The smaller electrode is a thin
strip of wire mounted about one inch above the aluminium foil. When a
30,000 volt charge is applied, a hissing noise is heard and the lifter
rises into the air as far as its tether will reach. A thrust also occurs
when the lifter is oriented horizontally, showing that the effect does not
involve gravity shielding. The lifter works regardless of whether the
positive or negative terminal is connected to the wire (the leading
electrode), though the thrust is slightly larger if a positive voltage is
NASA claims that the motion of ionized air molecules from one
electrode to another explains the B-B effect, and has excluded it from its
search for exotic new propulsion technologies. So if an electro-antigravity
technology based on the B-B effect has really been put to use in the B-2,
NASA appears to know nothing about it! It did, however, take out a patent
on a tubular version of Brown’s asymmetrical capacitor thruster in 2002 –
though without bothering to mention Brown’s name. Such devices certainly
create an ion wind, for the breeze can be felt. More stringent tests are
required to determine to what extent the effect persists in a vacuum, as
experiments to date have not been conclusive. A lifter experiment
performed at Purdue University inside a vacuum enclosure gave positive
results, but tests by other investigators have yielded negative results.9
It has not yet been proven that the ‘lifter’ phenomenon involves anything
more than electrostatic and electrodynamic effects.
Paulo and Alexandra Correa (see above and section 3), whose
experimental and observational skills are clearly demonstrated by the
various ether-energy technologies they have developed, are planning to
publish their own findings on the B-B effect in the near future. They have
already made their position clear: the experimental work of T.T. Brown and
his followers is highly deficient, as the original B-B effect has been
confused with anomalous phenomena associated with electron emission and
cathode reaction forces; LaViolette’s speculations are wide of the mark;
charges trapped in conventional capacitors do not produce an
antigravity effect, but the B-B effect masks a genuine
antigravity phenomenon connected with repulsion between like charges.
- Q. Majorana, ‘On gravitation. Theoretical and experimental
researches’, Phil. Mag., v. 39, 1920, pp. 488-504; Q. Majorana,
‘Sur l’absorption de la gravitation’, Comptes Rendus de l’académie
des Sciences, v. 173, 1921, pp. 478-479; Q. Majorana, ‘Quelques
recherches sur l’absorption de la gravitation par la matière’,
Journal de Physique et le Radium, I, 1930, pp. 314-324; Matthew R.
Edwards (ed.), Pushing Gravity: New perspectives on Le Sage’s theory
of gravitation, Montreal, Quebec: Apeiron, 2002, pp. 219-238,
- Tom Van Flandern, ‘Possible new properties of gravity’,
Astrophysics and Space Science, v. 244, 1996, pp. 249-261.
- M.F.C. Allais, ‘Should the laws of gravitation be reconsidered?’,
parts 1 and 2, Aero/Space Engineering, v. 18, Sep 1959, pp.
46-52, and v. 18, Oct 1959, pp. 51-55, http://allais.maurice.free.fr/English/media10-1.htm;
- E.J. Saxl, ‘An electrically charged torque pendulum’, Nature,
v. 203, 1964, pp. 136-138; E.J. Saxl and M. Allen, ‘1970 solar eclipse
as “seen” by a torsion pendulum’, Physical Review D, v. 3, 1971,
pp. 823-825; Journal of Scientific Exploration (www.scientificexploration.org),
10:2, pp. 269-279, and 10:3, pp. 413-416, 1996.
- Gary C. Vezzoli, ‘Gravitational data during the syzygy of May 18,
2001 and related studies’, Infinite Energy (www.infinite-energy.com),
9:53, 2004, pp. 18-27.
- Qian-shen Wang et al., ‘Precise measurement of gravity variations
during a total solar eclipse’, Physical Review D, v. 62, 2000,
Xin-She Yang and Qian-Shen Wang, ‘Gravity anomaly during the Mohe total
solar eclipse and new constraint on gravitational shielding parameter’,
Astrophysics and Space Science, v. 282, 2002, pp. 245-253,
- Shu-wen Zhou, ‘Abnormal physical phenomena observed when the sun,
moon, and earth are aligned’, 21st Century Science and Technology,
fall 1999, pp. 55-61.
- Chris P. Duif, ‘A review of conventional explanations of anomalous
observations during solar eclipses’, www.space-time.info/duifhome/duifhome.html;
Govert Schilling, ‘Shadow over gravity’, New Scientist, 27 Nov
2004, pp. 28-31; www.allais.info.
- E.E. Podkletnov, ‘Weak gravitation shielding properties of composite
superconductor below 70 K under e.m. field’, 1995, www.gravity-society.org/msu.htm;
American Antigravity, americanantigravity.com/podkletnov.html.
- Edwards, Pushing Gravity, p. 315.
- Marc G. Millis, ‘Prospects for breakthrough propulsion from physics’,
Gravity and electromagnetism
- E.J. Saxl, ‘An electrically charged torque pendulum’, Nature,
v. 203, 1964, pp. 136-138; Maurice Allais, ‘The action of a magnetic
field on the motion of a pendulum’, 21st Century Science and
Technology, summer 2002, pp. 34-40.
- The Home of Primordial Energy (Bruce DePalma), www.depalma.pair.com;
Jeane Manning, The Coming Energy Revolution: The search for free
energy, NY: Avery, 1996, pp. 82-86.
- Rho Sigma (Rolf Schaffranke), Ether-Technology: A rational
approach to gravity control, Lakemont, GA: CSA Printing & Bindery,
1977, pp. 73-82, 87-88, 108; John Davidson, The Secret of the
Creative Vacuum, Saffron Walden, Essex: Daniel Company, 1989, pp.
200-216; The Searl Effect, www.searleffect.com.
- V.V. Roschin and S.M. Godin, ‘Experimental research of the magnetic-gravity
- The Coming Energy Revolution, pp. 74-76; Thomas E. Bearden,
Energy from the Vacuum, Santa Barbara, CA: Cheniere Press,
2002, pp. 305-321, 436-468, 455, 459-464, 502-503.
- Mark A. Solis, ‘The Hutchison effect – an explanation’, www.geocities.com/ResearchTriangle/Thinktank/8863/HEffect1.html.
- Nick Cook, The Hunt for Zero Point, London: Arrow, 2002, pp.
- Ibid., p. 342.
- Dan A. Davidson, ‘Free energy, gravity and the aether’, 1997, www.keelynet.com/davidson/npap1.htm;
Dan A. Davidson, Shape Power, Sierra Vista, AR: RIVAS, 1997, pp.
- Eugene F. Mallove, ‘A matter of gravity’, Infinite Energy,
8:45, 2002, pp. 6-8, aetherometry.com/mallove_letter2.html; Massfree
Energy Technologies, www.massfree.com (Technologies).
- Dan A. Davidson, ‘Free energy, gravity and the aether’, 1997, www.keelynet.com/davidson/npap1.htm.
- Paul LaViolette, Subquantum Kinetics: A systems approach to
physics and cosmology, Alexandria, VA: Starlane Publications, 2nd
ed., 2003, pp. 243-259 (www.etheric.com); Paul LaViolette, ‘The U.S.
antigravity squadron’, in Thomas Valone (ed.), Electrogravitic
Systems: Reports on a new propulsion methodology, Washington, DC:
Integrity Research Institute, 1999, pp. 82-101; Thomas Townsend Brown
Website, www.soteria.com/brown; Rho-Sigma, Ether-Technology, pp.
- ‘The U.S. antigravity squadron’, p. 85.
- Electrogravitic Systems, pp. 8-44.
- ‘The U.S. antigravity squadron’, p. 82.
- Cook, The Hunt for Zero Point, pp. 194-200.
- Thomas B. Bahder and Chris Fazi, ‘Force on an asymmetric capacitor’,
Infinite Energy, 9:50, 2003, pp. 34-44, http://jlnlabs.imars.com/lifters/arl_fac/index.html.
- Takaaki Musha, ‘The possibility of strong coupling between
electricity and gravitation’, Infinite Energy, 9:53, 2004, pp.
- Infinite Energy, 8:45, 2002, pp. 6-8, 13-31, www.infinite-energy.com/iemagazine/issue45/thelifterphen.html;
Jean-Louis Naudin, http://jnaudin.free.fr/lifters/main.htm; American
- Gravitec Inc, foldedspace.com/corporate.html; Blaze Labs Research,
www.blazelabs.com/l-vacuum.asp; Tim Ventura, ‘Inertial nullification in
Empty space, curved space, and the ether
Newtonian gravity theory assumes that gravity propagates
instantaneously across empty space, i.e. it is believed to be a form of
action at a distance. However, in a private letter Newton himself
dismissed this idea:
That gravity should be innate, inherent, and essential to matter, so
that one body may act upon another at a distance through a vacuum,
without the mediation of any thing else, by and through which their
action and force may be conveyed from one to another, is to me so great
an absurdity, that I believe no man, who has in philosophical matters a
competent faculty of thinking, can ever fall into it.1
Newton periodically toyed with the idea of an all-pervading ether
filling his ‘absolute space’, and thought that the cause of gravity must
be a spiritual agency, which he understood to mean ‘God’.
The need to postulate an ether is underlined by G. de Purucker:
We either have to admit the existence of [the] ether or ethers, i.e.,
of this extremely tenuous and ethereal substance which fills all space,
whether interstellar or interplanetary or inter-atomic and intra-atomic,
or accept actio in distans – action at a distance, without
intervening intermediary or medium of transmission; and such actio in
distans is obviously by all known scientific standards an
impossibility. Reason, common sense, logic . . . demand the existence of
such universally pervading medium, by whatever name we may choose to
call it . . .2
Logically, every type of force must ultimately be produced by the
activity of material – though not necessarily physical – agents of some
kind, moving at finite, though possibly superluminal, speeds.
In 1905 Albert Einstein rejected the ether as ‘superfluous’.
However, he recognized that gravitational fields were present in all
regions of space, and for a time he spoke of a ‘gravitational ether’, but
he reduced it to an empty abstraction by denying it any energetic
properties. The fact that space has more than 10 different characteristics
– dielectric constant, modulus of elasticity, magnetic permeability,
magnetic susceptibility, modulus of conductance, electromagnetic wave
impedance, etc. – is a clear sign that it is far from empty. But it makes
more sense to regard space as being composed of energy-substance,
rather than simply ‘filled’ with it.
In 1915 Einstein published his general theory of relativity, which
is essentially a theory of gravity. He did not challenge the newtonian
notion that inert mass was the cause of the gravitational force. But
whereas Newton attributed gravitational attraction to the density of
matter, Einstein assumed that the same quantity of matter (‘gravitational
mass’) somehow warped the hypothetical four-dimensional ‘spacetime
continuum’ and that this deformity made the planets orbit the sun. In
other words, gravity is not regarded as a force that propagates but
supposedly results from masses distorting the ‘fabric of spacetime’ in
their vicinity in some miraculous way. Thus, rather than being attracted
by the sun, the earth supposedly follows the nearest equivalent of a
straight line available to it through the curved spacetime around the sun.
Relativists attribute the bending of starlight passing near the sun
mainly to space curvature. At Jupiter’s distance the bending would be just
0.00078 arc-seconds – and we’re supposed to believe that this minuscule
deformity of ‘spacetime’ can cause a planet the size of Jupiter to orbit
the sun! Moreover, ‘curved spacetime’ is simply a geometrical abstraction
– or rather a mathematical monstrosity – and can in no way be regarded as
an explanation of gravity. Although it is commonly claimed that relativity
theory has been confirmed by observational evidence, there are alternative
– and far more sensible – explanations for all the experiments cited in
General relativity theory claims that matter, regardless of its
electrical charge, produces only an attractive gravitational force, and
allows for only very tiny gravitational shielding or antigravity effects.
Furthermore, it does not predict any coupling between electrostatic and
gravitational fields. In fact, Townsend Brown’s pioneering 1929 paper that
reported the possible discovery of electrogravity was turned down by
Physical Review because it conflicted with general relativity.
Fields, strings, branes
According to quantum field theory, the four recognized forces –
gravity, electromagnetism, and the weak and strong nuclear forces – arise
from matter particles constantly emitting and absorbing different types of
force-carrying ‘virtual’ particles (known as bosons), which are constantly
flickering into and out of existence. The gravitational force is
supposedly mediated by gravitons – hypothetical massless, uncharged,
infinitesimal particles travelling at the speed of light. Since gravitons
would apparently be identical to their antiparticles, this theory, too,
appears to rule out antigravity, and it also fails to explain
Experimental support for these particle-exchange theories is
lacking, and it is not clear how they can account for attractive as well
as repulsive forces. Bosons are sometimes said to carry a ‘message’
telling matter particles whether to move closer or move apart – but this
explains nothing at all. Moreover, in the standard model, force-carrying
particles, like fundamental matter particles, are regarded as infinitely
small, zero-dimensional point-particles – which is clearly absurd. As a
result of these idealized notions, quantum calculations tend to be plagued
with infinities, which have to be done away with by a trick known as ‘renormalization’.
Einstein spent the last 40 years of his life attempting to extend
the geometrical notions of general relativity to include electromagnetic
interactions, and to unite the laws of gravitation and the laws of
electromagnetism in a unified field theory. Many other mathematicians also
worked on this subject, and some of these theories introduced a fourth,
curled-up dimension. None of these attempts was successful, and the search
for a unified theory continues.
Some scientists believe that string (or superstring) theory, which
first emerged in the 1970s, is a major step towards a ‘theory of
everything’. String theory postulates that all matter and force particles,
and even space (and time!) as well, arise from vibrating one-dimensional
strings, about a billion-trillion-trillionth of a centimetre (10-33
cm) long but with zero thickness, inhabiting a ten-dimensional universe in
which the six extra spatial dimensions are curled up so small that they
are undetectable! This theory has no experimental support; indeed, to
detect individual strings would require a particle accelerator at least as
big as our galaxy. Moreover, the mathematics of string theory is so
complex that no one knows the exact equations, and even the approximate
equations are so complicated that so far they have only been partially
Some scientists believe that beyond string theory lies M-theory,
which postulates a universe of 11 dimensions, inhabited not only by one-dimensional
strings but also by two-dimensional membranes, three-dimensional blobs (three-branes),
and also higher-dimensional entities, up to and including nine dimensions
(nine-branes). It is even speculated that the fundamental components of
the universe may be zero-branes.2 Such crazy
ideas do nothing to advance our understanding of the real world and merely
show how surreal pure mathematical speculation can become.
According to quantum theory, electromagnetic fields (and other
force fields) are subject to constant, utterly random* fluctuations even
at a theoretical temperature of absolute zero (-273°C), when all thermal
agitation would cease. As a result, ‘empty space’ is believed to be
teeming with zero-temperature energy in the form of fluctuating
electromagnetic radiation fields (the zero-point field) and short-lived
virtual particles (the ‘Dirac sea’).1 Formally,
every point of space should contain an infinite amount of zero-point
energy. By assuming a minimum wavelength of electromagnetic vibrations,
the energy density of the ‘quantum vacuum’ has been reduced to the still
astronomical figure of 10108 joules per cubic
*H.P. Blavatsky writes: ‘It is impossible to conceive
anything without a cause; the attempt to do so makes the mind a blank.’2
This implies that there must be a great many scientists walking around
with blank minds!
The reason we do not normally notice this energy is said to be
because of its uniform density, and most scientists are happy to ignore it
altogether. However, many experiments have been carried out whose results
are widely regarded as consistent with the existence of zero-point energy.
The presence of surfaces changes the density of vacuum energy and can
result in vacuum forces, an example being the Casimir effect – an
attractive force between two parallel conducting plates. However, far more
experimental work is needed to test the theory and alternative
explanations. NASA’s Marshall Space Flight Center is studying the
possibility of harnessing zero-point energy for spacecraft propulsion as
part of its Breakthrough Propulsion Physics Programme.3
Whereas conventional quantum electrodynamics derives the zero-point
field (ZPF) – sometimes called the ‘quantum ether’ – from quantum theory
and assumes that it is generated by physical matter-energy, there is a
competing approach (stochastic electrodynamics) which regards the ZPF as a
very real, intrinsic substratum of the universe.
Some scientists have theorized that mass, inertia, and gravity are
all connected with the fluctuating electromagnetic energy of the ZPF.4
Inertia (a body’s resistance to a change in its state of motion) is said
to be an acceleration-dependent, electromagnetic drag force stemming from
interactions between a charged particle and the ZPF. The fluctuations of
the ZPF are also said to cause charged particles to emit secondary
electromagnetic fields, which give rise to a residual attractive force –
gravity. In this theory, then, gravity is seen as a manifestation of
electromagnetism. It is thought that by reconfiguring the ZPF surrounding
a body, it may be possible to modify its inertia, or ‘inertial mass’, and
to control gravity.
Some ZPF researchers suggest that there is no such thing as mass –
only charges, which interact with the all-pervasive electromagnetic field
to create the illusion of matter.5 However,
since they do not go on to present a concrete picture of what they
understand by ‘charge’ or ‘charged particle’, this theory does not get us
very far. In the standard model of particle physics, ‘fundamental’ charged
particles such as electrons and quarks are modelled as infinitely small
particles with no internal structure – which is clearly a physical
According to the impact theory of gravity, which originated
primarily with the 18th-century scientist Georges-Louis Le Sage, gravity
is caused by physical matter being continuously bombarded by extremely
tiny, unobservable particles (‘gravitons’ – a word denoting different
things in different theories), which travel through space in all
directions far faster than the speed of light. The particles would have to
be so small that they only occasionally strike material constituents
within the bodies they pass through, so that each constituent has an equal
chance of being hit. Any two bodies in space will shadow one another from
some graviton impacts, resulting in them being ‘attracted’ (i.e. pushed)
towards one another with a force that obeys the inverse-square law.
Several competing versions of Le Sage’s theory are currently on offer.
They fall into two main groups: those that pursue the particle (or
corpuscular) approach, and those that replace the graviton sea by very
high or low frequency electromagnetic radiation that fills all of space.1
Graviton collisions with matter would have to be inelastic, since
gravitons would otherwise bounce back and forth between two bodies,
thereby cancelling the shielding effect. A common objection is that
inelastic graviton impacts would quickly heat all material bodies to an
enormous temperature. The theory’s proponents simply assert that bodies
must somehow radiate as much heat back into space as they absorb. However,
there is no clear evidence to support this in the case of the earth.
In newtonian theory, gravity supposedly acts instantaneously, while
in relativity theory it propagates at the speed of light. It is sometimes
argued that if the sun’s force propagated at the speed of light, it would
accelerate the earth’s orbital speed by a noticeable amount – something
which is not observed. Tom Van Flandern calculates from binary-pulsar data
that gravitons must propagate at least 20 billion times faster than
light!2 How these gravitons originate and manage
to get accelerated to such incredible velocities is not explained.
Dismissing the impact theory as speculative and untenable, Pari Spolter
argues that since the sun’s gravitational force is constantly spread in
all directions, and since the angular velocities of the sun and planets
remain constant for long periods of time, it is immaterial what the speed
of gravity is. The lag period would be important only at the beginning and
end of a planet’s evolution.3
While it is logical to suppose that all attractive forces
ultimately arise from pushes at some level,* the impact theory of gravity
is too simplistic to account for all the relevant facts. Like conventional
gravity theory, it cannot explain why all the planets orbit the sun in
planes which form only small angles to the sun’s equatorial plane, or why
all the planets circle the sun in the same direction as the sun’s sense of
rotation. Although Le Sage-type theories can explain gravitational
shielding (since matter placed between two gravitating bodies will absorb
or deflect gravitons), they cannot readily explain antigravity and
levitation, and usually ignore them. No impact theory has been devised to
explain bipolar forces such as electricity and magnetism, and adopting an
impact theory of gravitation therefore downgrades the link between gravity
*If we reason by analogy (as above, so below), the
microscopic world is a vastly scaled-down and speeded-up version of the
macroscopic world (see ‘The
infinite divisibility of matter’). At the macroscopic level, it
is impossible to find an attractive or pulling force that is not really
a push. For instance, a person who is ‘sucked’ out of a pressurized
cabin if the door opens while the aircraft is in flight is really
pushed out by the greater number of molecular bombardments ‘behind’
If an object immersed in an elastic fluid emits waves of
condensation and rarefaction, other bodies will be attracted or repelled
depending on whether the wavelength is very large or very small compared
with their dimensions.4 This case therefore
involves both attractive and repulsive forces, and both are ultimately
reducible to pushes, but the underlying processes are far more complex
than in the aircraft example.
Researchers in the field of ether physics have developed a variety
of models to explain the nature of matter and force. Such theories are
already ‘unified’ in the sense that physical matter and forces are derived
from the activity of the underlying ether. Subatomic particles are often
modelled as self-sustaining vortices in the ether, continuously radiating
and absorbing flows of ether. Inertia can be pictured as the drag force
exerted by the disturbed ether as a body accelerates through it. Electric
charge can be pictured as a difference in ether concentration, and
magnetic forces as circular flows of ether. Some researchers, such as Dan
Davidson, say that just as electric charge is a gradient in ether, the
gravitational force is a gradient of electric charge. This means that if
the etheric gradient is changed around an atom, the gravity force will
also change. This phenomenon can be amplified by synchronizing ether flows
through the nucleus of a given mass, either by rotation or movement or by
sonic stimulation, which causes all the atoms to resonate together.1
Paul LaViolette has developed a theory known as ‘subquantum
kinetics’, which replaces the 19th-century concept of a mechanical, inert
ether with that of a continuously transmuting ether.2
Physical subatomic particles and energy quanta are regarded as wavelike
concentration patterns in the ether. A particle’s gravitational and
electromagnetic fields are said to result from the fluxes of different
kinds of etheric particles, or etherons, across their boundaries, and the
resulting etheron concentration gradients. Positively charged particles
such as protons generate matter-attracting gravity wells whereas, contrary
to conventional theory, negatively charged particles such as electrons
generate matter-repelling gravity hills. Electrically neutral
matter remains gravitationally attractive because the proton’s gravity
well marginally dominates the electron’s gravity hill.
Most scientists assume that electrons are attracted by
gravity, but this has not been verified experimentally due to the
difficulty of the measurement. LaViolette sees confirmation of his theory
that electrons have antigravitational properties in an experiment
performed by Evgeny Podkletnov and Giovanni Modanese in 2001, which showed
that ‘an axial high-voltage electron discharge produces a matter-repelling
gravity wave that travels in the direction of the discharge exerting a
longitudinal repulsive gravitational force on a distant test mass’.3
Although the hypothesis that negative charges produce antigravity
fields would explain the classical Biefeld-Brown effect (a thrust directed
from the negative to the positive electrode of a high-voltage capacitor),
it poses the problem of explaining why a thrust can be produced regardless
of whether the leading electrode is positive or negative.
Building on the work of pioneering scientists such as Nicola Tesla,
Louis de Broglie, Wilhelm Reich, and Harold Aspden,4
Canadian scientists Paulo and Alexandra Correa have developed the
most detailed and quantitative model of a dynamic ether currently on offer,
known as aetherometry. They have also developed technological applications,
such as their pulsed-plasma (PAGD) reactors, which produce more power than
is required to run them, their self-sustaining aether motor, and their
weight-neutralizer and anti-gravitator.5
The Correas have conducted meticulous and exhaustive experiments
with electroscopes, ‘orgone accumulators’ (specially designed metal
enclosures), and Tesla coils which point to the existence of both electric
and nonelectric forms of massfree (nonphysical), nonelectromagnetic energy,
one component of which (known to chemists and climatologists as ‘latent
heat’) has antigravitational properties.6 By
showing that the ether (or ‘aether’, as they prefer to spell it) cannot be
reduced to electromagnetic energy, they have clearly exposed the
inadequacy of zero-point-energy models. When electrical massfree waves
encounter physical matter (e.g. earth’s atmosphere), they impart energy to
charged particles such as electrons, and when these charges decelerate
they shed this energy in the form of transient, vortex-like structures of
electromagnetic energy, i.e. photons.
Aetherometry proposes that the rotational and translatory movements
of planets, stars and galaxies are the result of spinning, vortical
motions of ether on multiple scales. Electric and nonelectric ether waves
impart impulses to the earth, for example, as they curve in towards the
planet, and this influx of energy not only propels the earth but also
produces its gravitational field. When nonelectric ether energy interacts
with physical or etheric charges it produces either gravitons, which impel
a particle or body towards regions of greater mass density, or
antigravitons, which impel them in the opposite direction. Gravitational
forces are essentially electrodynamic forces that depend on polarity:
aetherometry contends that gravity ultimately results from an
electrodynamic attraction that occurs when matter, which is mostly neutral
(with balanced charges of both polarities), interacts with ether lattices
formed by in-phase massfree charges, whereas antigravity ultimately
results from an electrodynamic repulsion that occurs when matter has net
charge and interacts with the same in-phase ambipolar charge lattices.7
Reports on a New Propulsion
Edited by Thomas Valone
Integrity Research Institute,
Washington, D.C., 1994
ISBN 0-9641070-0-7 $15 USD
The book contains:
1) the paper entitled "The U.S. Antigravity
Squadron" by Paul LaViolette (© 1993) which presents evidence that
the B-2 Advanced Technology Bomber may use electrogravitic propulsion to
enhance its flight capabilities. This paper, the first to reverse
engineer the mysterious B-2 bomber was presented in 1993 at the
International Symposium on New Energy (Denver, Colorado) and reprinted in
LaViolette's findings about the B-2 were reviewed
in 2000 in an article in Aviation International magazine. Nick Cook,
former aerospace editor for Janes Defense Weekly also has described these
findings in his book The Hunt for Zero Point.
| Shortly after it was
published, this copyrighted paper was illegally scanned and its text
was posted on the internet. Even though copyright notifications
have been posted at numerous websites, postings of it have
reappeared from time to time, often with the author's name omitted.
Please help to stem further postings by emailing the author at
SphinxStargate@aol.com to alert of pirate postings. Also, if you
have read or downloaded this paper, we urge you to please invest in
a copy of the book Electrogravitics Systems. You will find
that the paper's nine diagrams make its concepts much more
understandable. The book also contains other very interesting
electrogravitics papers, described below.
2) The book also contains the intelligence think
tank paper "Electrogravitics Systems" (prepared in 1956 by the Special
Weapons Study Unit of Aviation Studies Ltd., a UK-based aviation industry
intelligence firm). Formerly classified as confidential,
this paper is now available for public view and reveals early interest by
the U.S. and European aircraft industry in pursuing the electrogravitics
gravity control technology pioneered by Townsend Brown. Paul LaViolette
first discovered this paper in 1985 while browsing a card catalog at the
U. S. Library of Congress in Washington, looking for information on
electrogravitics. He was keenly interested in anything on the subject
because the field theory he had been developing predicted the electro-gravitic
coupling effect. He was surprised to find that this study, the only one
of its kind listed in the catalog, was missing from the stacks! A quick
library search indicated that only one library in the U. S. carried this
study, the Wright Patterson Air Force Base Technical Library. He submitted
an interlibrary loan request and to his surprise a copy was sent.
3) The book also includes the 1956 paper "The Gravitics Situation" (prepared
by a division of Aviation Studies Ltd.), a paper by Banesh Hoffman
entitled "Negative mass as a gravitational source of energy in the
quasistellar radio sources and a copy of Townsend Brown's 1929 gravitor
Excerpt from "The U.S. Antigravity Squadron"
by Paul A. LaViolette, Ph.D.
Electrogravitic (antigravity) technology, under development in U.S. Air
Force black R&D programs since late 1954, may now have been put to
practical use in the B-2 Advanced Technology Bomber to provide an exotic
auxiliary mode of propulsion. This inference is based on the recent
disclosure that the B-2 charges both its wing leading edge and jet exhaust
stream to a high voltage. Positive ions emitted from its wing leading edge
would produce a positively charged parabolic ion sheath ahead of the craft
while negative ions injected into it's exhaust stream would set up a
trailing negative space charge with a potential difference in excess of 15
million volts. According to electrogravitic research carried out by
physicist T. Townsend Brown, such a differential space charge would set up
an artificial gravity field that would induce a reactionless force on the
aircraft in the direction of the positive pole. An electrogravitic drive
of this sort could allow the B-2 to function with over-unity propulsion
efficiency when cruising at supersonic velocities.
For many years rumors circulated that the U.S. was secretly
developing a highly advanced, radar-evading aircraft. Rumor turned to
reality in November of 1988, when the Air Force unveiled the B-2 Advanced
Technology Bomber. Although military spokesmen provided the news media
with some information about the craft's outward design, and low radar and
infrared profile, there was much they were silent about. However, several
years later, some key secrets about the B-2 were leaked to the press. On
March 9, 1992, Aviation Week and Space Technology magazine made a
surprising disclosure that the B-2 electrostatically charges its exhaust
stream and the leading edges of its wing-like body.(1) Those familiar with
the electrogravitics research of American physicist T. Townsend Brown will
quickly realize that this is tantamount to stating that the B-2 is able to
function as an antigravity aircraft.
Aviation Week obtained their information about the B-2 from a
small group of renegade west coast scientists and engineers who were
formerly associated with black research projects. In making these
disclosures, these scientists broke a code of silence that rivals the
Mafia's. They took the risk because they felt that it was important for
economic reasons that efforts be made to declassify certain black
technologies for commercial use. Two of these individuals said that their
civil rights had been blatantly abused (in the name of security) either to
keep them quiet or to prevent them from leaving the tightly controlled
black R&D community.
Several months after "Aviation Week" published the article, black world
security personnel went into high gear. That sector of the black R&D
community received VERY STRONG warnings and, as a result, the group of
scientists subsequently broke off contact with the magazine. Clearly, the
overseers of black R&D programs were substantially concerned about the
information leaks that had come out in that article.
To completely understand the significance of what was said about the
B-2, one must first become familiar with Brown's work. Beginning in the
mid 1920's, Townsend Brown discovered that it is possible to create an
artificial gravity field by charging an electrical capacitor to a high-voltage.(2)
He specially built a capacitor which utilized a heavy, high charge-accumulating
(high K-factor) dielectric material between its plates and found that when
charges with between 70,000 to 300,000 volts, it would move in the
direction of its positive pole. When oriented with its positive side up,
it would proceed to lose about 1 percent of it's weight.(3, 4) He
attributed this motion to an electrostatically-induced gravity field
acting between the capacitor's oppositely charged plates. By 1958, he had
succeeded in developing a 15 inch diameter model saucer that could lift
over 110% of its weight!(5) Brown's experiments had launched a new field
of investigation which came to be known as electrogravitics, the
technology of controlling gravity through the use of high-voltage electric
Additional information about electrogravitic
propulsion may be found in the book
Subquantum Kinetics: A Systems Approach to Physics
by Paul LaViolette. The book presents a field theory which forms an
excellent basis for understanding electrogravitic phenomena. This new
physics framework played a key role in allowing Dr. LaViolette to reverse
engineer the B-2's propulsion system.
We believe that in the future subquantum kinetics will be the main
physics reference that will allow engineers to construct the aerospace
vehicles of the future. When these principles are completely understood,
superluminal propulsion is real, not science fiction. Future aerospace
pilots will use the term "gradient drive," not "warp drive." As pointed
out in subquantum kinetics, gravitational force is created not through the
"warping" of space-time (that is an impossibility), but through the
imbalances which gravity energy potential gradients induce, which alter
the reaction-kinetic processes that continually generate the field
patterns composing material bodies. Those who have no previous
exposure to subquantum kinetics may find the above terminology confusing.
However, things should become clearer once you have made the paradigm
shift that subquantum kinetics entails.
Acclaim for Electrogravitics Systems
111-page book presents information indicating that antigravity has been
and is being seriously investigated by leading aircraft companies as well
as governments. An underlying theme is that T. T. Brown propulsion, once
developed, will usher in an age of flight so revolutionary it will make
all previous aviation, from the Wright brothers to space shuttles,
constiute the Stone Age of flight.
This book can be appreciated by anyone who is interested in
electrogravitics. It contains basic information for the neophyte (such as
glossaries, patent lists and basics on T. T. Brown research) as well as
clippings and information which make a case for the reality of
electrogravitics technology. . . The book is thought-provoking.
Having made a theoretical case for electrogravitics, the book also
makes a historical one. Hints of electrogravitics in the history of
aviation, revealed through developments and statements made by major
aircraft companies in articles from Aviation Report in the mid-1950's are
reprinted. T. T. Brown's work is described in detail.
The paper by Paul LaViolette is an intriguing speculation that the B-2
stealth bomber operates on T. T. Brown's principle of propulsion.
Statements from government and ex-government workers and officials are
shown to fit in nicely with this possibility. LaViolette argues that
several disclosed as well as probable technological details of this
classified design are consistent with design specifications for a would-be
T. T. Brown aircraft.
Empty space, curved space, and the ether
- Quoted in G. de Purucker, The Esoteric Tradition, Pasadena,
CA: Theosophical University Press (TUP), 2nd ed., 1940, pp. 443-444fn;
H.P. Blavatsky, The Secret Doctrine, TUP, 1977 (1888), 1:490-491.
- The Esoteric Tradition, 901-902fn.
- See ‘Space,
time, and relativity’ (Einstein’s fallacies), davidpratt.info.
Fields, strings, branes
- Brian Greene, The Elegant Universe: Superstrings, hidden
dimensions, and the quest for the ultimate theory, London: Vintage,
2000, p. 19.
- Ibid., pp. 287-288, 379.
- R. Forward, ‘Mass modification experiment definition study’,
Journal of Scientific Exploration, 10:3, 1996, pp. 325-354.
- H.P. Blavatsky, The Secret Doctrine, Pasadena, CA:
Theosophical University Press, 1977 (1888), 1:44.
- Breakthrough Propulsion Physics, www.lerc.nasa.gov/WWW/bpp/summ.htm.
- B. Haisch and A. Rueda, ‘The zero-point field and the NASA challenge
to create the space drive’, Journal of Scientific Exploration,
11:4, 1997, pp. 473-485; ‘Questions and answers about the origin of
inertia and the zero-point field’, www.calphysics.org/questions.html.
- B. Haisch, A. Rueda and H.E. Puthoff, ‘Beyond E=mc²’, The
Sciences, 34:6, 1994, pp. 26-31.
- Matthew R. Edwards (ed.), Pushing Gravity: New perspectives on
Le Sage’s theory of gravitation, Montreal, Quebec: Apeiron, 2002.
- Tom Van Flandern, ‘The speed of gravity – what the experiments say’,
Meta Research Bulletin, 6:4, 1997, pp. 49-62.
- Pari Spolter, pers. com., 8 Jan 2001.
- Encyclopaedia Britannica, 9th ed., 1898, p. 64.
- Dan A. Davidson, Shape Power, Sierra Vista, AR: RIVAS, 1997,
pp. 1-7; Dan A. Davidson, ‘Free energy, gravity and the aether’, 1997,
- Paul LaViolette, Genesis of the Cosmos: The ancient science of
continuous creation, Rochester, VE: Bear and Company, 2004; Paul
LaViolette, Subquantum Kinetics: A systems approach to physics and
cosmology, Alexandria, VA: Starlane Publications, 2nd ed., 2003
- Harold Aspden (aether physics), www.aspden.org.
- Massfree Energy Technologies, www.massfree.com;
Keith Tutt, The
Search for Free Energy: A scientific tale of jealousy, genius and
electricity, Simon & Schuster, 2001, pp. 218-22, 315-7.
- Aetherometry, www.aetherometry.com; Paulo N. Correa and Alexandra N.
Correa, Experimental Aetherometry, vols. 1 & 2A, Toronto:
AKRONOS Publishing, 2001 & 2003.
and gravity: an introduction’, davidpratt.info.
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