Time Travel Research Center
© 2005 Cetin BAL  GSM:+90 05366063183 Turkey/Denizli
Excerpt
from Chap. 11 of StarDrive Engineering:
"The Quest for Quantum Gravity"
"The preceding material will hopefully prepare us for a look at
some very basic translight mechanics, for I will acknowledge
myself to be conversant with respect to such an abstract and complex
concept only in general terms! It should be possible, however, for us to
examine certain fundamental principles which would be involved in the
workings of a
hyperspace "warpjump" with an application of straightforward
logic and a couple of basic relativistic formulas that are actually easy
to work with.
"The analytical procedure we'll use in this discussion
derives from the method of breaking the timelight barrier that
was proposed at the end of the last Chapter: whereby a
StarDrive [EDF] Generator will be driven to
a speed sufficient to cause its relativistic mass to very closely
approach a level which would ordinarily correspond to the
Chandrasekhar limit [about 1.4
solar masses] in reliance upon its Field electron
degeneracy pressure to prevent the formation of a
neutron object or a black hole. In doing so, it is hoped that an openended
wormhole will arise which is navigable by means of the Lorentz
transformation, in accordance with the work of
OlexaMyron Bilaniuk.
"In order to work with the largest values for starship
mass and Field electron velocity (as a function of Field voltage),
data will be supplied for a vessel 100 feet in diameter – which as I've
said is the largest model advisable using this technology. What we will
do first is calculate such a vessel's total relativistic mass at a
velocity which corresponds to its Field electron collision speed:
the reason being that it will be interesting to see what happens when
the starship reaches a velocity which a
reactionary ionthrusted rocket, having the same exhaust speed,
couldn't possible exceed.

How the StarDrive Field Generator works: To produce
electricallydeveloped thrust, a StarDrive vessel's power system uses
electrostatic induction and thermionic emission principles to create an
ultrahigh potential difference across the hull and to initiate a huge
rotor current that shunts electron charge to the hull's peripheral
emitter ring – until the ship is completely enclosed in an impenetrable
bubble of heavy quasicoherent 'arc' or
electrodynamic Field discharge current. In essence, the EDF
Generator's 'StarDrive' variant is simply an electron supercollider.
Accordingly, the electrons comprising this electric Field envelope
current are accelerated to very nearly the speed of light, and because
of the hull's radial symmetry the Field envelope is split into two
hemitoroidal electron current streams (as shown above) which are
mutually opposed as they strike the positive central collector sections
of the hull. As mathematically verified in the
Patent,
with sufficient current density the relativistic mass of these two
currents can provide impulse thrust of nearly 2 'gee' simply from a
controlled variable imbalance in the
continuous physical force of their impact with the central collectors!
[It must be pointed out that this type of
propulsion is the NASA Breakthrough Propulsion Physics Program's very
definition of a 'diametric drive', which functions by "creating an
asymmetric field of force around itself without expelling reaction mass"
and whose top speed would be limited only by relativity. Wikipedia adds
this: "It is unknown whether it is even physically possible to
create such a field." As you can see, it now surely is . .
.]
In other words – if these two external Field currents were of equal
magnitude, no net force would be developed. However, if the "lower"
current stream is much stronger than the "upper", the vessel will be
propelled away from the stronger current – in the "upward" direction.
And since there is no 'backward' exhaust produced, this type of thrust
is truly reactionless in nature. [The collectors are
sectored for directional control, which is achieved by varying the
proportional current conducted by various sectors.]
Since the electric acceleration achieved by Field current
electrons is purely a function of the applied Field voltage, and
must remain subjectively constant despite
any increase in the velocity of the vessel itself,
all Field current electrons themselves will
be compelled to provide sufficient work/energy output such
that their collector impact velocity remains constant – whereby
the net impulse thrust produced will then rise 'in
phase' with vessel momentum, increasing asymptotically with speed
according to the FitzGerald ratio reciprocal and yielding a constant
level of vessel acceleration despite the relativistic rise in the vesselandField's
apparent mass.
Thus, a StarDrive Field Generator vessel would theoretically be
capable of traveling fasterthanlight "locally" – from the subjective
point of view of any onboard instrumentation or crew – by asymptotically
approaching the speed of light to within an arbitrarily small increment
until certain relativistic conditions arise which allow the formation of
a local Kerr metric space warp
{pdf} (as
discussed further below).
For a further layman's description
of the StarDrive device's method of operation,
click here.
"The next step will be to compute the starship's expected
foreshortening in the direction of travel, according to the
Lorentz contraction * which is an inevitable consequence of
relativity. This 'shrinking' of the vessel's
length along its axis of velocity may be figured according to
the most fundamental factor or expression in relativity theory,
which is sometimes called the FitzGerald ratio.
This factor, usually designated as t (tau),
is equal to (1 – v^{2}/c^{2})^{1/2}
and is used in any calculation of relativistic mass or time dilation.
* It must be noted that while the Lorentz
contraction does not involve any actual subjective physical deformation
of an object with relativistic velocity, is nevertheless a real
effect and does indeed involve the nonuniform relative deformation of
the spacetime in which such an object is moving.
"Since the computations we'll be making here are only
intended to constitute the roughest of approximations, being largely
illustrative and instructional in nature, a related parameter called the
Schwarzschild radius will then be
calculated. This radius defines the physical size at which a 'cold'
spherical object cannot avoid becoming a black hole. Again, this
expression is actually very simple: Rs
= 2GM/c^{2}, where c is the
speed of light, M is the total mass, and G is the
universal gravitational constant (at 6.6726 x 10^{–11}
ntm^{2}/kg^{2}).
"Our goal in this endeavor is then simply to observe how
closely the ship's foreshortened halflength approaches its
Schwarzschild radius! We will let Lo
equal the starship's rest length, while bearing in mind that it will
drive upperfaceon during space flight, and this "length" (or
hull height) is equal to 2(hz + hf);
then, Lr will be the resultant contracted
length. If we assume that one half of Lr
will need to approach Rs as closely as
possible in order for a stable wormhole to be induced, we can state our
tentative translight or "warp drive" parameter
thusly: Lr/2 ^{
>} Rs .

The max. net cabin volume available aboard any size
StarDrive vessel is outlined in yellow
above.
You serious 'starship design' enthusiasts should take a look at our
Manned Vessel Design DataSheet (pdf,
283KB, 2 pgs.); weight, displacement, Field voltage, and peak rotor
current for vessels of 40, 60, 80 and 100 feet in dia.
"Using the pdf
Hull Configuration Spreadsheet, the hull volume or
displacement of the 100ft.dia. "Toltec" is
39,168 ft^{3} and, at a weight/volume
ratio of 79.2 lbs/ft^{3}, the starship's
rest mass (Mo) is 1.4071 x 10^{6}
kg. And, it turns out that the value for Lo
is equal to 4.205 m. The equations in steps [1] ~ [4] on pg. 119 (in the
FIELD POWER OUTPUT worksheet) may then be used to
calculate the peak Field electron velocity and a corresponding value for
t, but we must first know the value for
peak Field voltage. Using the [standard
specification] method developed in WorkSheet I(a), this Field voltage
value is 4.9383 x 10^{9}, or nearly 5
billion volts!
"Accordingly, the peak Field electron velocity is between
"8 and 99's light": in other words,
0.999 999 995 c. [It should be noted that in performing relativistic
calculations, you basically can't use too many decimal places!] The
contingent value for t is then equal to 1.0000 x 10^{–4}.
The ship's total relativistic mass is equal
to Mr = Mo/t,
at 1.4071 x 10^{10} kg; and, Lr
= Lo(t) = 4.205 x 10^{–4}
m. Computing the rough value for the 100ft.
starship's [theoretical] Schwarzschild radius, we find that the vessel's
Rs = 2.0893 x 10^{–17}
m; and, Lr/2 is equal to 2.1025 x
10^{–4} m. So, we can see that the
foreshortened halflength is indeed greater than
the absolute minimum safe value, but by many orders of magnitude
instead of only marginally: in fact, about ten trillion times
greater!
"However, if we calculate the critical density
of an object of Chandrasekhar limit mass and Schwarzschild radius, this
density is equal to 9.4 x 10^{18}
kg/m^{3}. Then, if
we compute a relativistic density for the 100foot starship, neglecting
its nonsphericity and assuming that its hull volume is reduced by the
given Lorentz factor t, we find this
relativistic density equal to 3.9845 x 10^{12}
kg/m^{3}. Now,
that limit critical density exceeds the starship's said theoretical
relativistic density by "only" 2.36 x 10^{6}
or 2.36 million times. To actually achieve a Schwarzschild
critical density, by which time we know a warp field must be
induced, we can merely allow our starship to apply positive reactionless
acceleration a bit longer to raise its
velocity just slightly above Field impulse velocity and lower its
factor t
by (2.36 x 10^{6})^{1/2}
or 1,536 times: this will yield t
= 6.51 x 10^{–8},
and a starship Mr = 15,360,983 Mo.
"So,
it would seem that the latter translight parameter tends to
indirectly verify a StarDrive vessel's ability to induce a warp field,
although the first such exercise did not. And, I can't presently say
just how close such a ship must come to equality with either
parameter we developed above (the latter being preferred). It also seems
reasonable to postulate, however, that a narrow
velocity range will exist within which the desired wormhole effect is
stable: on the lower end of such a "safety zone", the
vessel risks "dropping out of warp" (with a bothersome loss of time and
energy), and on the high end its mass [Mr]
risks a rapid ascent to certain disaster! This latter effect I
feel would be a consequence of the starship's
magnetic field, which so far we have not even considered. And, at
the levels of charge and velocity we're considering, the strength of the
magnetic field "corridor" associated with such a vessel will be
truly tremendous! Remember what we learned about 'magnetic energy
density' in relation to the Tokamak equation?!...
"By far the most important consideration to bear in mind,
however, is that a StarDrive vessel represents an
asymptotic reactionless drive,
and therefore the ship's ultimate velocity is not limited to the
velocity of the electrons comprising its isometric Drive Field. Unlike
most forms of rocket, it is free to accelerate beyond its "exhaust"
velocity – and to achieve an ultimate velocity in spacetime
which is only infinitesimally less than that of light. Therefore, an
unmanned probe Drive Unit could be turned loose to accelerate until its
relativistic mass becomes almost astronomical, and it either finds a
stable warp corridor within such a safety zone or is destroyed in the
process".
__________________ * * * *
* __________________
If you would like to learn more about the
StarDrive technology discussed above, and its exciting potential for
true interstellar propulsion, just click
on the homepage
button below. You may also use the link provided
to purchase a copy of our landmark 441pg.
electrodynamic field drive technical manual*,
which includes a full basic set of scalable specifications and
schematics for real lightspeed starships up to 100 feet in
diameter.
Those of you who are seriously interested in learning more about
the fascinating and timely concept of
wormhole induction may wish to carefully consider the
following material taken from Chapter 10 of StarDrive Engineering
("Exceeding the Limits"), which discusses three essential steps
in the reasoning which supports our concept of how wormhole induction
may be achieved. In turn, please investigate the excellent relevant
academic paper which is accessible with the link below. We hope that
this material will further illuminate and emphasize the tremendous
potential of the patented Electrodynamic
Field Generator (developed by Archer Enterprises) as a
working starship hyperspace drive – one that can be built today –
based on the melding of valid principles from
general relativity and quantum physics which are the very
foundation of the quest for a unifying theory of Quantum Gravity.
"Laws of quantum mechanics dictate that spacetime "vacuum
fluctuations" must exist: oscillations in the positive and
negative quantum energy balance at virtually all points within the void.
This concept has been verified by the indirectlyobservable occurence of
spontaneous virtual pair creation as proof of electromagnetic vacuum
fluctuations (or EM flux) in the universal
zeropoint
field, and by the predicted thermodynamic "evaporation" of black
holes as evidence of gravimetric vacuum
fluctuations or GM
flux in the work of Stephen Hawking.
"The laws of quantum fields in curved spacetime (derived
from the study of black holes) furthermore would require that
gravimetric flux in close proximity to the event horizon of a black hole
must have a negative average energy density. Moreover, the work
of Robert Wald and Ulvi Yurtsever implies that a
heavilygravitating object moving at relativistic velocity can also
produce surrounding regions of GM flux with a negative average energy
density.
"Much more importantly, however, Don Page (a Penn State University
professor and former student of Hawking) has shown conclusively that any
wormhole either naturally or artificiallyproduced must have a
uniform distribution of "exotic material" holding it open to avoid
instant collapse. And, it seems this material can
theoretically only have two forms: antimatter or concentrated
negative GM flux!"
It's been postulated by physicists for some time that such
regions of relative spacetime instability may in fact provide a "bridge"
to hyperspace. And, as it turns out, a few visionary theoreticians have
actually demonstrated mathematically that ultrahighenergy
electric and/or magnetic fields with the proper configuration can also
be used to produce a hypercylindricallycurved wormhole effect.
But we know of no one before Eric W. Davis, Ph.D., who has proposed that
these two means for producing negative GM flux
should be combined in order to generate a stable openended wormhole
– that is, to open and cross a local spacetime warp and thus achieve
travel that is relatively fasterthanlight!
At the time the brief paper below was published, Dr. Davis didn't
have the benefit of any knowledge of the StarDrive device's potential as
a lightspeed reactionless drive. He therefore had to postulate a rocketbased
spacecraft which could not only generate a "cylindrically symmetric
ultrahigh magnetic field"  or magnetic field corridor!  but
somehow incorporate a "stardrive component" or "fieldgenerator system"
which would provide a stupendous negative (GM
flux) energy field with which to stabilize the wormhole against
collapse!! And since the incredible chargevelocity
(magnetic) product and extreme relativistic density of an
EDF Generator
StarDrive vessel at verynear light speed will
provide both of these required wormhole induction features,
we believe the logical course of research and development is plainly
indicated . . .
[ in pdf
]: "Interstellar
Travel by Means of Wormhole Induction Propulsion", by Dr. Eric W.
Davis
> To browse the FTL (Warp) Theory
section of our StarDrive LINKS
page, click here <
__________________ * * * *
* __________________
A Closing Thought on "Breakthrough Propulsion":
We hope you enjoyed the preceding material related to FTL theory,
and would like to thank all of the many people who regularly
visit our website and who comprise part of our growing following in the
particular field of breakthrough propulsion
physics. While the great majority of the feedback we receive in
this regard is very positive, we're also used to hearing timetotime
from those who express varying degrees of skepticism regarding our work.
And while many prospective correspondents of supposed academic stature
in this field seem to have adopted a waitandsee attitude concerning
our StarDrive propulsion technology, we've never to date received
a single letter of condemnation from any bona fide member of the
academic community regarding the integrity and viability of the
StarDrive Engineering project. It seems that most theoreticians simply
can't accept that there could be a fairly straightforward
electromechanical solution to the intractable problem of FTL drive,
which might leave much of the purely academic efforts in this area in a
position of less realworld relevance!
No one has yet been able to give the slightest evidence that the
ultrahighvoltage propulsive variant of the StarDrive device we've
developed and patented won't work exactly as we claim – and we do
claim that it is the most sophisticated and viable starship propulsion
system on Earth. Not only does it fulfill all of the NASA
Breakthrough Propulsion Physics Program's primary criteria for a
feasible reactionless FTL propulsion methodology, but it fulfills an
additional and allimportant criterion that the NASA project managers
seem to have overlooked: no other such propulsion methodology
known or yet proposed would provide the inherent
heavy EM shielding capability that will be absolutely essential
to protect both ship and crew (from collision with interstellar debris
and radiation) across the vessel's entire velocity range!
And so, our position is simply this:
what sense does it make for NASA to waste our tax
dollars for the next 15 or 20 years fooling around with
nuclearpowered ion rockets, as they seem fully prepared to
do, when such an unshielded ship and its crew could never survive
traveling at any substantial portion of the speed that even such a
relatively primitive vessel might be capable of?! . . .
and on the (probable) cancellation of NASA's Breakthrough
Propulsion Physics program?!:
As most of our visitors no doubt are aware, NASA's BPP
program was established in 1996 as a clearinghouse for research that
could help us achieve the dream of manned space flight to the stars. In
what we can only hope isn't the last word on whether this country
ever develops a workable interstellar propulsion system, a recent
article in the Sunday Herald revealed that the BPP
program's tiny budget has been "deferred" and that project scientists
are afraid it will be cut indefinitely. Fittingly enough, this excellent
but rather discouraging article (9/14/03) is entitled "To
boldly go...nowhere very fast".
<<<
StarDrive home page more
about reactionless electric propulsion
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