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Excerpt from Chap. 11 of StarDrive Engineering:

"The Quest for Quantum Gravity"

     "The preceding material will hopefully prepare us for a look at some very basic trans-light mechanics, for I will acknowledge myself to be conversant with respect to such an abstract and complex concept only in general terms! It should be possible, however, for us to examine certain fundamental principles which would be involved in the workings of a hyperspace "warp-jump" with an application of straightforward logic and a couple of basic relativistic formulas that are actually easy to work with.
     "The analytical procedure we'll use in this discussion derives from the method of breaking the time-light barrier that was proposed at the end of the last Chapter: whereby a StarDrive [EDF] Generator will be driven to a speed sufficient to cause its relativistic mass to very closely approach a level which would ordinarily correspond to the Chandrasekhar limit [about 1.4 solar masses] in reliance upon its Field electron degeneracy pressure  to prevent the formation of a neutron object or a black hole. In doing so, it is hoped that an open-ended wormhole will arise which is navigable by means of the Lorentz transformation, in accordance with the work of Olexa-Myron Bilaniuk.
     "In order to work with the largest values for starship mass and Field electron velocity (as a function of Field voltage), data will be supplied for a vessel 100 feet in diameter – which as I've said is the largest model advisable using this technology. What we will do first is calculate such a vessel's total relativistic mass at a velocity which corresponds to its Field electron collision speed: the reason being that it will be interesting to see what happens when the starship reaches a velocity which a reactionary ion-thrusted rocket, having the same exhaust speed, couldn't possible exceed.

How the StarDrive Field Generator works:   To produce electrically-developed thrust, a StarDrive vessel's power system uses electrostatic induction and thermionic emission principles to create an ultra-high potential difference across the hull and to initiate a huge rotor current that shunts electron charge to the hull's peripheral emitter ring – until the ship is completely enclosed in an impenetrable bubble of heavy quasi-coherent 'arc' or electrodynamic Field discharge current. In essence, the EDF Generator's 'StarDrive' variant is simply an electron supercollider.
    Accordingly, the electrons comprising this electric Field envelope current are accelerated to very nearly the speed of light, and because of the hull's radial symmetry the Field envelope is split into two hemitoroidal electron current streams (as shown above) which are mutually opposed as they strike the positive central collector sections of the hull. As mathematically verified in the
Patent, with sufficient current density the relativistic mass of these two currents can provide impulse thrust of nearly 2 'gee' simply from a controlled variable imbalance in the continuous physical force of their impact with the central collectors!
    [It must be pointed out that this type of propulsion is the NASA Breakthrough Propulsion Physics Program's very definition of a 'diametric drive', which functions by "creating an asymmetric field of force around itself without expelling reaction mass" and whose top speed would be limited only by relativity. Wikipedia adds this: "It is unknown whether it is even physically possible to create such a field." As you can see, it now surely is . . .]
    In other words – if these two external Field currents were of equal magnitude, no net force would be developed. However, if the "lower" current stream is much stronger than the "upper", the vessel will be propelled away from the stronger current – in the "upward" direction. And since there is no 'backward' exhaust produced, this type of thrust is truly reactionless in nature. [The collectors are sectored for directional control, which is achieved by varying the proportional current conducted by various sectors.]
    Since the electric acceleration achieved by Field current electrons is purely a function of the applied Field voltage, and must remain subjectively constant despite any increase in the velocity of the vessel itself, all Field current electrons themselves will be compelled to provide sufficient work/energy output such that their collector impact velocity remains constant – whereby the net impulse thrust produced will then rise 'in phase' with vessel momentum, increasing asymptotically with speed according to the FitzGerald ratio reciprocal and yielding a constant level of vessel acceleration despite the relativistic rise in the vessel-and-Field's apparent mass.
    Thus, a StarDrive Field Generator vessel would theoretically be capable of traveling faster-than-light "locally" – from the subjective point of view of any onboard instrumentation or crew – by asymptotically approaching the speed of light to within an arbitrarily small increment until certain relativistic conditions arise which allow the formation of a local Kerr metric space warp {pdf} (as discussed further below).


For a further layman's description of the StarDrive device's method of operation, click here.

     "The next step will be to compute the starship's expected foreshortening in the direction of travel, according to the Lorentz contraction * which is an inevitable consequence of relativity. This 'shrinking' of the vessel's length along its axis of velocity may be figured according to the most fundamental factor or expression in relativity theory, which is sometimes called the FitzGerald ratio. This factor, usually designated as t (tau), is equal to (1 – v2/c2)1/2 and is used in any calculation of relativistic mass or time dilation.
    * It must be noted that while the Lorentz contraction does not involve any actual subjective physical deformation of an object with relativistic velocity, is nevertheless a real effect and does indeed involve the non-uniform relative deformation of the space-time in which such an object is moving.
     "Since the computations we'll be making here are only intended to constitute the roughest of approximations, being largely illustrative and instructional in nature, a related parameter called the Schwarzschild radius will then be calculated. This radius defines the physical size at which a 'cold' spherical object cannot avoid becoming a black hole. Again, this expression is actually very simple: Rs = 2GM/c2, where c is the speed of light, M is the total mass, and G is the universal gravitational constant (at 6.6726 x 10–11 nt-m2/kg2).
     "Our goal in this endeavor is then simply to observe how closely the ship's foreshortened half-length approaches its Schwarzschild radius! We will let  Lo  equal the starship's rest length, while bearing in mind that it will drive upper-face-on during space flight, and this "length" (or hull height) is equal to 2(hz + hf); then, Lr will be the resultant contracted length. If we assume that one half of Lr will need to approach Rs as closely as possible in order for a stable wormhole to be induced, we can state our tentative trans-light or "warp drive" parameter thusly: Lr/2 > Rs .

    The max. net cabin volume available aboard any size StarDrive vessel is outlined in yellow  above.
You serious 'starship design' enthusiasts should take a look at our
Manned Vessel Design DataSheet (pdf, 283KB, 2 pgs.);  weight, displacement, Field voltage, and peak rotor current for vessels of 40, 60, 80 and 100 feet in dia.

     "Using the pdf Hull Configuration Spreadsheet, the hull volume or displacement of the 100ft.-dia. "Toltec" is 39,168 ft3 and, at a weight/volume ratio of 79.2 lbs/ft3, the starship's rest mass (Mo) is 1.4071 x 106 kg. And, it turns out that the value for Lo is equal to 4.205 m. The equations in steps [1] ~ [4] on pg. 119 (in the FIELD POWER OUTPUT worksheet) may then be used to calculate the peak Field electron velocity and a corresponding value for t, but we must first know the value for peak Field voltage. Using the [standard specification] method developed in WorkSheet I(a), this Field voltage value is 4.9383 x 109, or nearly 5 billion volts!
    "Accordingly, the peak Field electron velocity is between "8- and 9-9's light": in other words,
0.999 999 995 c. [It should be noted that in performing relativistic calculations, you basically can't use too many decimal places!] The contingent value for t is then equal to 1.0000 x 10–4. The ship's total relativistic mass is equal to Mr = Mo/t, at 1.4071 x 1010 kg; and, Lr = Lo(t) = 4.205 x 10–4 m. Computing the rough value for the 100ft. starship's [theoretical] Schwarzschild radius, we find that the vessel's Rs = 2.0893 x 10–17 m; and, Lr/2 is equal to 2.1025 x 10–4 m. So, we can see that the foreshortened half-length is indeed greater than the absolute minimum safe value, but by many orders of magnitude instead of only marginally: in fact, about ten trillion times greater!
     "However, if we calculate the critical density of an object of Chandrasekhar limit mass and Schwarzschild radius, this density is equal to 9.4 x 1018 kg/m3. Then, if we compute a relativistic density for the 100-foot starship, neglecting its non-sphericity and assuming that its hull volume is reduced by the given Lorentz factor t, we find this relativistic density equal to 3.9845 x 1012 kg/m3. Now, that limit critical density exceeds the starship's said theoretical relativistic density by "only" 2.36 x 106 or 2.36 million times. To actually achieve a Schwarzschild critical density, by which time we know a warp field must be induced, we can merely allow our starship to apply positive reactionless acceleration a bit longer to raise its velocity just slightly above Field impulse velocity and lower its factor  t  by (2.36 x 106)1/2 or 1,536 times:  this will yield  t  =  6.51 x 10–8,  and a starship Mr = 15,360,983 Mo.

     "So, it would seem that the latter trans-light parameter tends to indirectly verify a StarDrive vessel's ability to induce a warp field, although the first such exercise did not. And, I can't presently say just how close such a ship must come to equality with either parameter we developed above (the latter being preferred). It also seems reasonable to postulate, however, that a narrow velocity range will exist within which the desired wormhole effect is stable: on the lower end of such a "safety zone", the vessel risks "dropping out of warp" (with a bothersome loss of time and energy), and on the high end its mass [Mr] risks a rapid ascent to certain disaster! This latter effect I feel would be a consequence of the starship's magnetic field, which so far we have not even considered. And, at the levels of charge and velocity we're considering, the strength of the magnetic field "corridor" associated with such a vessel will be truly tremendous! Remember what we learned about 'magnetic energy density' in relation to the Tokamak equation?!...
     "By far the most important consideration to bear in mind, however, is that a StarDrive vessel represents an asymptotic reactionless drive, and therefore the ship's ultimate velocity is not limited to the velocity of the electrons comprising its isometric Drive Field. Unlike most forms of rocket, it is free to accelerate beyond its "exhaust" velocity – and to achieve an ultimate velocity in space-time which is only infinitesimally less than that of light. Therefore, an unmanned probe Drive Unit could be turned loose to accelerate until its relativistic mass becomes almost astronomical, and it either finds a stable warp corridor within such a safety zone or is destroyed in the process".

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If you would like to learn more about the StarDrive technology discussed above, and its exciting potential for true interstellar propulsion, just click on the homepage button below. You may also use the link provided to purchase a copy of our landmark  441-pg. electrodynamic field drive technical manual*, which includes a full basic set of scalable specifications and schematics for real light-speed starships up to 100 feet in diameter.

     Those of you who are seriously interested in learning more about the fascinating and timely concept of wormhole induction may wish to carefully consider the following material taken from Chapter 10 of StarDrive Engineering ("Exceeding the Limits"), which discusses three essential steps in the reasoning which supports our concept of how wormhole induction may be achieved. In turn, please investigate the excellent relevant academic paper which is accessible with the link below. We hope that this material will further illuminate and emphasize the tremendous potential of the patented Electrodynamic Field Generator (developed by Archer Enterprises) as a working starship hyperspace drive – one that can be built today – based on the melding of valid principles from general relativity and quantum physics which are the very foundation of the quest for a unifying theory of Quantum Gravity.
    "Laws of quantum mechanics dictate that space-time "vacuum fluctuations" must exist: oscillations in the positive and negative quantum energy balance at virtually all points within the void. This concept has been verified by the indirectly-observable occurence of spontaneous virtual pair creation as proof of electromagnetic vacuum fluctuations (or EM flux) in the universal zero-point field, and by the predicted thermodynamic "evaporation" of black holes as evidence of gravimetric vacuum fluctuations or GM flux in the work of Stephen Hawking.
    "The laws of quantum fields in curved space-time (derived from the study of black holes) furthermore would require that gravimetric flux in close proximity to the event horizon of a black hole must have a negative average energy density. Moreover, the work of Robert Wald and Ulvi Yurtsever implies that a heavily-gravitating object moving at relativistic velocity can also produce surrounding regions of GM flux with a negative average energy density.
    "Much more importantly, however, Don Page (a Penn State University professor and former student of Hawking) has shown conclusively that any wormhole either naturally- or artificially-produced must have a uniform distribution of "exotic material" holding it open to avoid instant collapse. And, it seems this material can theoretically only have two forms: antimatter or concentrated negative GM flux!"
     It's been postulated by physicists for some time that such regions of relative space-time instability may in fact provide a "bridge" to hyperspace. And, as it turns out, a few visionary theoreticians have actually demonstrated mathematically that ultra-high-energy electric and/or magnetic fields with the proper configuration can also be used to produce a hypercylindrically-curved wormhole effect. But we know of no one before Eric W. Davis, Ph.D., who has proposed that these two means for producing negative GM flux should be combined in order to generate a stable open-ended wormhole – that is, to open and cross a local space-time warp and thus achieve travel that is relatively faster-than-light!
     At the time the brief paper below was published, Dr. Davis didn't have the benefit of any knowledge of the StarDrive device's potential as a light-speed reactionless drive. He therefore had to postulate a rocket-based spacecraft which could not only generate a "cylindrically symmetric ultrahigh magnetic field" - or magnetic field corridor! - but somehow incorporate a "stardrive component" or "field-generator system" which would provide a stupendous negative (GM flux) energy field with which to stabilize the wormhole against collapse!! And since the incredible charge-velocity (magnetic) product and extreme relativistic density of an EDF Generator StarDrive vessel at very-near light speed will provide both of these required wormhole induction features, we believe the logical course of research and development is plainly indicated . . .

[ in pdf ]: "Interstellar Travel by Means of Wormhole Induction Propulsion", by Dr. Eric W. Davis
> To browse the FTL (Warp) Theory section of our StarDrive LINKS page, click here <

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A Closing Thought on "Breakthrough Propulsion":

     We hope you enjoyed the preceding material related to FTL theory, and would like to thank all of the many people who regularly visit our website and who comprise part of our growing following in the particular field of breakthrough propulsion physics. While the great majority of the feedback we receive in this regard is very positive, we're also used to hearing time-to-time from those who express varying degrees of skepticism regarding our work. And while many prospective correspondents of supposed academic stature in this field seem to have adopted a wait-and-see attitude concerning our StarDrive propulsion technology, we've never to date received a single letter of condemnation from any bona fide member of the academic community regarding the integrity and viability of the StarDrive Engineering project. It seems that most theoreticians simply can't accept that there could be a fairly straightforward electromechanical solution to the intractable problem of FTL drive, which might leave much of the purely academic efforts in this area in a position of less real-world relevance!
     No one has yet been able to give the slightest evidence that the ultra-high-voltage propulsive variant of the StarDrive device we've developed and patented won't work exactly as we claim – and we do claim that it is the most sophisticated and viable starship propulsion system on Earth. Not only does it fulfill all of the NASA Breakthrough Propulsion Physics Program's primary criteria for a feasible reactionless FTL propulsion methodology, but it fulfills an additional and all-important criterion that the NASA project managers seem to have overlooked: no other such propulsion methodology known or yet proposed would provide the inherent heavy EM shielding capability that will be absolutely essential to protect both ship and crew (from collision with interstellar debris and radiation) across the vessel's entire velocity range!
     And so, our position is simply this: what sense does it make for NASA to waste our tax dollars for the next 15 or 20 years fooling around with nuclear-powered ion rockets, as they seem fully prepared to do, when such an unshielded ship and its crew could never survive traveling at any substantial portion of the speed that even such a relatively primitive vessel might be capable of?! . . .

and on the (probable) cancellation of NASA's Breakthrough Propulsion Physics program?!:

     As most of our visitors no doubt are aware, NASA's BPP program was established in 1996 as a clearinghouse for research that could help us achieve the dream of manned space flight to the stars. In what we can only hope isn't the last word on whether this country ever develops a workable interstellar propulsion system, a recent article in the Sunday Herald revealed that the BPP program's tiny budget has been "deferred" and that project scientists are afraid it will be cut indefinitely. Fittingly enough, this excellent but rather discouraging article (9/14/03) is entitled "To boldly go...nowhere very fast".

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