last modified on: Mar. 24, 2005

Background & Specifications for Using the StarDrive Electronic Dynamo
In the Commercial Generation of Electricity and Desalination of Seawater

Features: >>>  Basic Dynamo Unit Specifications   &  EDF Generator Utility Plant Specs

Introduction:  Most of us are aware these days that the world-wide demand for electricity is actually growing much faster than the population, and that the cost of building new electric power plants and fueling them has become staggering. We have also heard that power shortages and 'brown-outs' are becoming much more common. What many might not realize, however, is that the world's pressing need for fresh water may well become the most critical resource issue of the early 21st century.
    In 1997, a United Nations freshwater resources assessment found that at least half a billion people then lived in countries with conditions of moderate to high "water stress". This figure is expected to rise to 3 billion by 2025, by which time the industrial use of water is expected to double. This sad situation is potentially desperate for developing countries with high water stress and low per-capita income. At the present time, nearly a billion people do not have access to clean drinking water. Countries in the more arid regions of the globe are especially vulnerable: in Israel, for example, the annual fresh water deficit exceeds 50 billion gallons, about 10% of their total yearly demand.
   Even in the United States, shortage of water is an issue of major concern in large metropolitan areas from Los Angeles to Tampa. Much of California will be chronically short of water by 2010; the big cities of the Southwest could run out of water in 10 to 20 years; and Florida's reservoirs are nearing depletion levels while its water table is increasingly briny from seawater infiltration. Even cities in the Great Lakes region, which encompasses one-fifth of the world's surface fresh water, may very well face serious water shortages within 20 years. [For a keen relevant look at the impending crises in water and energy from a Californian perspective, read the first part of this  Jim Puplava Storm Watch article (06/04/04).]
   The World Resources Institute in Washington, DC recently reported that even with the implementation of stringent measures to control the global growth of demand and require that fresh water be used more efficiently, most particularly in the irrigation of farmland, new sources of supply will inevitably be needed. Historically, the desalinization of seawater has always been viewed as much too expensive to represent a reasonable solution to our water shortages. But with the advent of the StarDrive Electronic Dynamo developed by Archer Enterprises, this may no longer necessarily be true. [Note:  Those of you who are primarily interested in commercial reverse-osmosis and desalinization systems may click here to skip the Dynamo Background section below.]
StarDrive Dynamo Background:
  While our exotic and patented StarDrive Dynamo technology was originally intended as an ultra-high-voltage all-electric aerospace propulsion system, a lower-voltage ground-based unit has been designed to serve as an electric utility and water desalinization plant whose output can approach that of a nuclear facility – but which is far less expensive to build and operate!
  The StarDrive Dynamo, whose design and operating characteristics are described in this website's  Electric Power Generation page, is an over-unity thermoelectric device whose output circuit produces and incorporates a high-energy external electrodynamic field; and as such, it is therefore subject to a certain amount of skepticism on the part of electrical engineering classicists. However, recent breakthroughs in quantum electrodynamics quite clearly show that a standing electric corona or arc field discharge is capable of absorbing tremendous quantities of
background electromagnetic energy, which goes a long way toward explaining the long-standing mysteries of natural lightning.

  Therefore, just as in any bolt of lightning, a StarDrive Dynamo's output is recovered from  ambient photonic energy  by the electrons that comprise its electrodynamic field. [This concept is explained in greater detail in the
 METHOD OF OPERATION SUMMARY page you may link to farther down this page. Please note that we use the term "Dynamo" to distinquish the larger liquid-cooled machines from small air-cooled "Generator" units.]
   Despite its controversial design and operating theory, the StarDrive Dynamo is a very traditionally-derived device, and is in essence an unusual variant of the original Faraday permanent magnet dynamo that's rendered brushless using classical vacuum tube theory. And despite the unorthodox way in which these simple technologies were combined, and the inherent over-unity implications, the U.S. Government granted us a patented for it (on June 11, 2002) without ever challenging any of the content in the 96-page Application!
[ref.: #6,404,089, Electrodynamic Field Generator, by Mark R. Tomion]

basic Dynamo unit specifications:  Unlike nearly any other over-unity device known or proposed, the Electrodynamic (EDF) Generator technology is essentially linearly-scalable in nature – including the liquid sodium coolant system. As you can see in the Table below, we have developed basic specifications for several feasible municipal-sized Dynamo units (including heat exchanger) of from 4.1 to 60 MW. All of these units, having outer housing diameters as listed in the left-most column, will be readily transportable over-the-road by common carrier.
   However, market analyses suggest that initially just the 10 MW and 30 MW units will be developed for production, due to the huge additional expense of prototyping all of the various other heat exchangers. This strategy will not only facilitate a limited and workable standard model "inventory" suitable for most localities and applications, but will decrease local dependence on regional and national grid infrastructures which may be either failing or as-yet undeveloped.
                 marginal     nominal         peak        est'd. cost         
                  output        output         output        unit & htx.      max. inverter capacity^
    37.5"      4.1 MW       5.0 MW        5.8 MW      $1.5 million       72 @  80kw ea.
    45.0"      5.9 MW       7.5 MW        8.4 MW      $2.1 million       72 @ 120kw ea.

    52.5"      8.0 MW      10.0 MW      11.4 MW      $2.8 million      144 @  80kw ea.
    60.0"     10.5 MW     12.5 MW      15.0 MW      $3.7 million      144 @ 120kw ea.
    67.5"     13.3 MW     17.5 MW      18.9 MW      $4.7 million        72 @ 120kw ea., 144 @ 80kw ea.
    75.0"     16.4 MW     20.0 MW      23.4 MW      $5.8 million      216 @ 120kw ea.
    82.5"     19.9 MW     25.0 MW      28.3 MW      $7.1 million      144 @ 120kw ea., 144 @ 80kw ea.

    90.0"     23.6 MW     30.0 MW      33.0 MW      $8.4 million      288 @ 120kw ea.
    105"      32.0 MW     40.0 MW      45.0 MW     $11.5 million      288 @ 120kw ea., 144 @ 80kw ea.
    120"      42.0 MW     50.0 MW      60.0 MW     $15.0 million        72 @ 838kw ea.
^rated inverter output capacities are shown; max. input ratings are 86, 124, and 889 kW respectively.

   Two unorthodox EDF Generator operating characteristics, which would perhaps not be obvious even to 'experts in the field', must be understood to fully appreciate the nature of the StarDrive Dynamo design and its implications: (1) the device's thermal output is wholly independent of the electrical power drawn; and (2) heat must be extracted from the power resistors  in proportion to the square of the  no-load DC field current  needed to develop a particular inverter input voltage.
   Thus, designing a complete StarDrive Dynamo utility plant presents a few complexities in matching its ancillary support subsystems to a particular application profile, although tremendous flexibility of output management is inherent in the extraordinary dual-output nature of the technology! Students and engineers are encouraged to review a brief but excellent
utility plant application case study, which nicely illustrates just such considerations.

   We are now able to project reasonably accurate utility plant cost estimates for large-scale electrical power generation StarDrive Dynamo units of 10-, 20-, and 30-ft. diameters, having power output ratings of  64, 256, and 576 megawatts  respectively. The primary coolant system is liquid sodium based, like that used in many nuclear plants, and therefore represents a well-established technology. [A secondary liquid-nitrogen-based intercooler system may also be employed to maintain the primary cathodes and power resistors at the proper operating temperature.]
Our best current projections of the net plant construction costs for these Thermal Units (not including the non-technical support infrastructure) are as follows:

60 MW StarDrive Dynamo utility plant:
(desalination capacity = 2,376,000 gpd)

10.00 ft. Thermal Unit Dynamo ....... $5.6 million
heat exchanger equipment ............ 9.4 million
MSF distillation equipment ........ 11.4 million
3φ AC output equipment ........   11.5 million
total hdwe. cost
 =  $37.9 million

240 MW StarDrive Dynamo utility plant:
(desalination capacity = 9,504,000 gpd)

20.00 ft. Thermal Unit Dynamo ..... $20.3 million
heat exchanger equipment .......... 33.7 million
MSF distillation equipment ........ 44.2 million
3φ AC output equipment ........   41.5 million
total hdwe. cost
  =  $139.7 million

540 MW StarDrive Dynamo utility plant:
(desalination capacity = 21,384,000 gpd)

30.00 ft. Thermal Unit Dynamo .... $41.6 million
heat exchanger equipment .......... 69.2 million
MSF distillation equipment ........ 94.4 million
3φ AC output equipment ........   85.0 million
total hdwe. cost
  =  $290.2 million

  While these cost projections might seem high in terms of the initial capital investment, such plants would actually be about half as expensive to build as any coal-fired plant of comparable capacity! The current average cost of constructing a conventional thermal electric power plant is just about $1 million per megawatt (MW) of capacity, or $1/watt. This same cost/watt figure for each of the StarDrive Dynamo plants above is respectively $0.632, $0.582, and $0.537!! Furthermore, the tremendous heat delivered by the sodium coolant system would not need to be used to produce steam for powering conventional generating turbines. Instead, it may be more practically used for desalinating seawater or for centralized municipal or industrial hydronic heating systems and, as you can see, these plant costs actually include the price of multi-stage flash distillation equipment!

a prototype 240 MW StarDrive utility plant:  The electric power output capacity of the 20-ft. Dynamo system depicted below has been carefully calculated at 240 MW! This salable power will be delivered by means of advanced solid-state DC-to-AC power inverters that are run directly from the Dynamo's internal power resistors. And in this case, the overall production efficiency will be well over 90%, as compared to conventional fossil fuel generating plants that are usually only about 50% efficient at best. [If you would like to review the pdf specifications for the modular power inverter and MSF distillation equipment that we've had designed for use with StarDrive Dynamo utility plants, click here.]

   By maximizing the size of the primary coolant conduits, compared to the minimum size as specified in our technical manual  StarDrive Engineering,  a 20-ft. Dynamo will handle a total primary coolant flow of 17,000 gallons per minute (gpm). This huge high-pressure sodium volume of flow will in turn support a 240 MW output based on a working coolant temperature differential of 250°C. And while this is still far less than such a dynamo's full theoretical output potential, it's at the very limit of coolant flow capacity [see our pdf thermal flow proof sheet, with the actual coolant flow formulas and calculations].
   To give some further specific information with regard to a 20-ft. diameter StarDrive Dynamo: the unit's rotor will weigh about 2 tons (or 1,800 kg.) and require 6 minutes to bring up to an operating rotational speed of about 250 rpm. A total of 16 inboard low-voltage DC electric drive motors, each of which has a ½-hp rating, will therefore be required. These drive gearmotors must initially be powered from an external source; but because the StarDrive Dynamo is a vastly over-unity device, they may be switched-over to also run entirely off taps in the unit's own internal power resistors [shown in the general schematic on our power plant page] during the cold-start period as the device exceeds self-sustaining operation.

   A stylized 3D representation of a high-ampacity StarDrive Dynamo rotor assembly, having 180 radial copper conductor segments (shown in aquamarine) and 180 peripheral field emitters (shown in bronze) composed of a sintered tungsten/copper composite.
   Because the StarDrive Dynamo's prime energy source is its six huge internal banks of permanent magnet rings, which wouldn't need remagnetizing for many years, the cost of production is merely the amortized cost of the plant itself and related debt service! It will therefore be possible to produce electric power with this 240 MW plant at a gross cost of only $0.015 per kWh, with no capital outlay whatsoever for "fuel". Furthermore, such a plant's thermal output is wholly independent of the output electric power it delivers, and can be equal in magnitude to that plant's rated power capacity*: appr. 6,600 gpm of potable water (or over 9,500,000 gallons per day!) could be distilled via the primary coolant system, and may be considered a free by-product of the Dynamo plant's method of operation!!  [* It's important to understand that a StarDrive device's thermal by-product must be extracted in direct proportion to the no-load electric power it produces and uses in operation to establish a given DC output voltage.]

 > To review this website's page on basic EDF Generator power plant design,
click here
 >> For a layman's Summary of the StarDrive Dynamo's method of operation, click here
Municipal engineers who are interested in implementing this revolutionary technology
are welcome to contact our business office, as shown at the top of the page, or
use the e-mail link below. Our office hours are 9 am to 5 pm (EST), Mon.– Fri.

<<< to StarDrive home page     

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Desalinization (cont'd.):
   For those of you who would like a good introductory technical overview of the several different types of commercial seawater desalinization processes currently in use, we can recommend visiting This excellent site not only provides a technical info database and flow diagrams, but has links to downloadable files, a photo gallery, and informative discussion forums as well. World Wide Water represents a great reference resource for students and researchers of all ages.
  As an added service to our U.S. visitors, the following link to the Big Brand Water Filters commercial reverse osmosis webpage is provided. Not only do they offer water treatment and filtration equipment of nearly every conceivable size and type, but provide unusually comprehensive online technical data and pricing information for those systems as well. It should be noted that the "small" 24kW StarDrive Generator we are presently prototyping would be able to operate the largest RO system shown at  (23,000 gpd), or a number of smaller similar units which represent a comparable total of pumpmotor horsepower (7½ hp, 60Hz). These RO, softener, UV and carbon filter systems are suitable for nearly all typical residential and commercial water treatment applications – including the purification of brackish Florida groundwater and even raw seawater.
   Finally, the link to the Aquatech International Corporation website below will provide a great technical process description of multi-stage flash distillation systems of the same type as the big modular 60 MW system they designed for use with our StarDrive Dynamo units (referred to in the Generation of Electricity section you can go back to from below). As industry leaders in desalination and water treatment systems on the largest of scales,  presents pictures and basic flow diagrams, as well as great 'Scope of Technology and Services' sections. Case studies are also provided for you engineers.
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